Presentation-signposts and punc - 2012

Report
Cohesion:
Signposting and punctuation
References:
Bailey, S. 2011. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students. Routledge: Oxon.
Swales, J. & Feak, C. 1994. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. The University of Michigan Press: Ann
Arbor.
Swan, M. 1995 Practical English Usage. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press: Oxford
Websites:
www.uefap.com
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
http://sana.tkk.fi/awe
’
We’ve been talking about flow…
− Language of academic papers  vocabulary shift
− Organizing information in a paper  paragraphs and sentences
− Now, to establish a clear connection of ideas…
− Use linking words and phrases as well as
punctuation.
Part 1: Linking words and phrases
Can help maintain flow and establish clear
relationships between ideas
Can be arranged according to their function
and grammatical use.
Also called a ’discourse marker’
Discourse means ’pieces of language longer
than a sentence’. Some words and expressions
are used to show how discourse is constructed.
They can show the connection between what a
speaker is saying and what has already been
said or what is going to be said; they can
indicate what speakers think about what they are
saying or what others have said.
(Swan, 1995, p. 159)
More commonly called signposts because
they show you the way…
EXPLANATIONS
Subordinators: Sentence
connectors:
Phrase
linkers:
introduce a
dependent clause.
It must be joined to
an independent
clause to complete
the sentence and to
give the full
meaning.
introduce a noun
phrase, usually at
the beginning of a
sentence (but not
always).
introduce a
complete sentence
(independent
clause).
EXAMPLE
Independent clause: He was handy.
Subordinator
Because he was
handy, he was
always asked to
come and repair
something.
Sentence
Coordinator
Therefore, he was
always asked to
come and repair
something
Phrase linker
Because of his
handiness, he was
always asked to
come and repair
something
What they are and what they do
Formal, academic style
Addition
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
--
Furthermore,
In addition,
Moreover,
Also
Additionally,
Another thing to note
is
What is more,
In addition to…
As well as…
Informal: So, Another thing is, In any case, Besides,…= not acceptable
Adversativity: opposition (emphatic contrast)
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
Although
Even though
However,
Nevertheless,
Nonetheless,
Despite
In spite of
Cause and effect
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
Because
Since
Insofar as
Therefore,
As a result,
Consequently,
Hence,
Thus**,
Because of
Due to
As a result of
Owing to
Informal: So, Then, … = unacceptable
Clarification
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
--
In other words,
That is to say (i.e.)
--
Contrast: difference
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
While
Whereas
In contrast,
However,
On the other hand,
Conversely,
Meanwhile,
Unlike
Generalization
Subordinators
Sentence Connectors
Phrase linkers
On the whole,
In general,
Broadly speaking,
To a great extent,
Overall,
Apart from,
Except for,
(exceptions to
generalizations)
Illustration
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
inside a sentence
--
For example,
For instance,
especially
specifically
for example
for instance
such as
Intensification
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
--
On the contrary
As a matter of fact,
In fact
--
Parallelism/Comparing
Subordinators:
Sentence connectors:
Phrase linkers:
introduce a dependent
clause that must be joined
to complete a sentence
Introduce a complete
sentence
Introduce a noun phrase
While
Simultaneously,
At the same time,
Similarly,
Likewise,
Meanwhile,
--
Referring
Subordinators
Sentence Connectors
Phrase linkers
As was previously
mentioned,
As has been noted,
With reference to
Regarding
Concerning
Structuring
Subordinators
Sentence Connectors
First, Second,
Third…Finally,..
Firstly, Secondly, …
First, then, after that, next,
Finally,
To begin with,
To start with,
To conclude,
To summerize,
Phrase linkers
Additional information
Using English for Academic Purposes (UEFAP)
Rhetorical functions: http://www.uefap.com/writing/writfram.htm
Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University
Writing transitions: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/574/01/
Transitional devices: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/574/02/
Academic Writing in English (AWE) website
Signposts: http://sana.tkk.fi/awe/cohesion/signposts/index.html
Bailey, S. (2011) Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students
Part 2 (pgs. 101-149)
Other linking words
This (these)+ summary word
− ESL lecturers know that students need to understand the differences
between formal and informal language. However, this understanding
cannot usually be aquired quickly.
− This = demonstrative pronoun
− Refers to the previous phrase (givennew)
Other pronoun possibilities…
−
−
−
−
−
Basics – he, she, it, they, we
Posessive – his, her(s),its, their(s), our (not common in AW)
Objective – her, him, them, us (not common in AW)
Demonstrative – this, that, these, those
Other – the former, the latter, the aforementioned, the abovementioned,
Homework
− Reading textbook
− Chapters:
− 2.4: Comparisons
− 2.9: Problems and solutions
− 3.9: Punctuation
Part 2: Punctuation
Sentence connectors raise the important issue of punctuation
You have to learn the proper use of punctuation in English and in your
field
We only deal with some punctuation, namely comma (,), semicolon (;),
colon (:) and dash(-)
Semicolon
− Joins two (completely independent) clauses/phrases that are related
or connected to each other.
− Works much like a full stop (period)
− Air traffic delays due to high traffic volume have increased considerably
over the last decade; these delays have become a major public policy
issue.
− Some argue that it’s stronger than comma and weaker than a
period.
− Can be used with sentence connectors
− Increasing the size of airports is one solution to traffic congestion;
however, this is a long-term solution whose benefits may not be seen
for many years into the future.
Semicolon
− Can be used to separate rather long items in list :
− Some of the solutions to the air traffic delay problem include increasing
the size of airports that routinely experiece flight delays; overhauling the
air traffic control system so that more flights can be safely handled; and
increasing landing fees.
− Is usually used if the information is grammatically complex.
Colon and Comma
− Weaker stops
− Comma (,) separates items in a list
− Colon (:) introduces a list and explanations
− The meeting was postponed: the Dean was ill.
− Commas used with conjunctions (and, but, or) and subordinators
(although, if, whereas)
− There are four main causes of airport congestion: bad weather,
excessive volume, runway closures, and equipment outages.
Dash
− Sometimes a dash is used to introduce a list
− They are used to intrude additional information to a sentence, much like
brackets ().
− There are four main causes of airport congestion: bad weather – such
as a snowstorm – may ground planes…
− Mostly, though, a dash is more often used in informal texts.

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