News and Language

Report
GCSE English
Reading Non-fiction
Comparing language
GCSE English
Reading Non-fiction
Lessons 1&2
LO: Can I analyse non-fiction
writers’ use of language in detail?
Key words: Devices, Effects, Reader response
Common linguistic / literary features…
• 1st, 2nd or 3rd person
(narrative viewpoint)
• Directly addressing the
reader
• Imperatives (commands)
• Rhetorical questions
• Register - formal/informal
language
• Diction - simple/complex
vocabulary
• Figurative language &
imagery: similes/metaphor/
personification etc.
• Word play & puns
• Alliteration
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rhyme & rhythm
Anecdote & allusion
Slogan & catchphrase
Statistics & facts
Exaggeration & hyperbole
Repetition
Humour
Sensory language
Emotive language
Punctuation type
Expert advice
Short sentences
Superlatives
Lists
IN GROUPS
Which language devices can you identify? What kind of text?
“…budget cut from about £16m to £10m over
three years…”
“Chris Ready, Wigan council's portfolio holder
for leisure, said: “We have a proud history of
investing in sport in Wigan borough…””
“That proposal was, Sebastian Coe said,
“entirely based on a properly resourced
replacement track and field facility in
Sheffield”.”
“We were on a mission. As we turned into our
road from the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound
drifted over us. We knew we were on our way.”
“Our mouths dropped in awe. We didn’t know
the word then, but now we knew the feeling. A
sea of coloured banners, waves of red and
white crashing into shores of blue and white,
was rolling off the motorway, driving right past
us.”
1.
2.
“After all this, will we just keep on watching as
it keeps on happening, again and again? When
will we come to our senses?”
“He puts so much butter on them that it runs
through the holes and down our arms as we pull
at the soft, warm dough with our teeth. We all
run our fingers round our plates and lick the
stray butter off them. Everyone is so quiet. Both
of them have red eyes like white rabbits.”
“If we could create a Garment Workers Welfare
Trust in Bangladesh with that additional 50
cents, we could resolve most of the problems
workers face – safety, work environment,
pensions, healthcare, housing, their children's
health, education, childcare, retirement, old
age and travel.”
3.
“Mum starts to roll the pastry out, concentrating
hard, like every push is a piece of mathematics.
‘Here, you have a go, darling.’”
4.
Which text do
your short
excerpts
belong to?
Why were
these texts
created, and
who for?
Does their
purpose and
audience
affect the kind
of language
they use?
Why writers use particular kinds of language…
Humour
Facts,
statistics
and expert
advice
Sensory
description
This often ‘wins over’ the reader,
making them more likely to be
sympathetic to the writer’s point
of view.
These features authenticate a text.
They make it more real and believable –
we are more likely to trust the text.
This can create / evoke a clear image
and sense of the thing being described
in the mind of a reader.
IN PAIRS
GCSE English Language exam
In the
, you are expected to both
read and write different kinds of non-fiction. This unit focuses on the reading section of
the paper, which asks you to read and respond to texts in certain ways. You are asked…
retrieve
1. To
information and
text (usually a newspaper article)
explain it to show you’ve fully understood a
analyse a text’s presentational features, such as headlines and images, and
link them to the text (again – usually a newspaper article)
To infer meanings, ideas, thoughts, feelings etc. from a text – to ‘read between
2. To
3.
the lines’ (usually a descriptive piece)
4. To
compare the use of language in two non-fiction texts.
This question is worth 16 marks. You’re always asked to compare Source 3 (the
descriptive piece) to either Source 1 or Source 2. The question is:
Compare the different ways language is used for effect in the two
texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.
(16 marks)
Analysing / comparing language is not a case of ‘technique spotting’, then providing a generic
‘effect’ for each text. How has this student analysed language? Where have they identified
writers’ techniques, and where do they speak more generally about language?
Both Text 2 and 3 use shock tactics. Phrases such as
“splattered with each other’s blood” and “her abaya
stained red” shock the reader with their graphic
imagery and add to the interest for the reader. The
whole article is very descriptive, which enables the
reader to picture the “highways of death” and
“plumes of smoke”. Text 3 uses shock tactics, but for a
different purpose: to make the reader feel guilt,
which in turn makes them feel compelled to donate.
For example “thousands of children have been
killed” and “still in real danger” induce a feeling of
responsibility onto the reader. Furthermore, words
such as “urgently” and “please help” further reiterate
the persuasive style of this text.
IN PAIRS
Analysing / comparing language is not a case of ‘technique spotting’, then providing a generic
‘effect’ for each text. How has this student analysed language? Where have they identified
writers’ techniques, and where do they speak more generally about language?
Both articles use emotive and powerful language but
in different ways. Text 2’s headline uses military
words such as “blasted”, “missile” and “targeted”;
these words link with an article about a war torn
part of the world where violence is a fact of life. The
harsh, sibilant sounds of these words reinforce the
violence of their meanings. Similarly, Text 3 uses the
word “emergency” to make the reader take notice.
The verbs “help” and “save”, skilfully suggest to the
reader that they need to take action and the use of
the inclusive “us” makes the reader feel part of a team
doing good. In addition the words “lives” and
“children” make an appeal to the reader’s emotions
as they think that it is serious if lives are at risk and
that vulnerable and innocent children can be
helped.
IN PAIRS
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
IN GROUPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Question: How is language is used for effect in
this text. Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
GCSE English
Reading Non-fiction
Lessons 3&4
LO: LO: Can I write comparatively
about language and its effect?
Key words: Devices, Effects, Reader response
You will usually be comparing an ‘information’, news-type text…
…with a ‘narrative’, story-type text.
Useful connectives…
Showing similarities
…is similar to…; similarly; like/likewise; equally;
as with…; moreover…; in the same way…; in a
similar way…
For differences
…in contrast to…; alternatively…; compared
with…; in comparison with…; …is different from…;
on the other hand; instead of…; however;
otherwise…; whereas…; unlike…
IN PAIRS
Reader’s response to your
text?
‘learns’
‘discovers’
‘shocked’
1. Which words / phrases are useful when thinking about reader response?
2. Are any not appropriate?
3. Which need to be used with ‘may’, ‘might’, ‘could’ / ‘perhaps’, ‘possibly’?
Jigsaw Activity
1. A Cook’s Tour and Costa
Coffee article
2. Black Earth City and
British bluebells article
3. Memories of
Auschwitz and giant
snails article
Jigsaw Activity
Band 3 (clear, consistent)
Both texts use lists. The ‘bluebells’ story explains the
reasons why flowers arrive at different times:
“elevation, latitude, aspect, soils, geology and local
climate conditions”. This list gives more
information and helps the reader understand the
issue being described. On the other hand, ‘Black
Earth City’ uses a list to describe the hostel in
Russia-. People in the hostel “slept, worked, had
parties, ate, drank, sulked, wrote letters, cooked
smoked and hung out their washing” in this place.
This long list creates an image in the reader’s mind
and tells us that the hostel is a very busy and lively
place and that there are always things going on.
IN PAIRS
Band 4 (detailed, perceptive)
Both texts use lists, but for different purposes. The
‘bluebells’ story tells readers about the different
factors affecting bluebells appearing in British
forests; which are “elevation, latitude, aspect, soils,
geology and local climate conditions”. This list
helps the reader understand the issue being
described in the text – it is complex and cold
weather is just one factor. On the other hand, ‘Black
Earth City’ uses a list for a descriptive purpose - to
convey the activity of the hostel in Russia. We are
told the people who live in the hostel “slept, worked,
had parties, ate, drank, sulked, wrote letters,
cooked…” which gives the impression that this is the
centre of their lives . The listing of these verbs
creates an image of the “overpopulation” in the
hostel; this is a busy, cramped place where
occupants don’t get a lot of privacy.
IN PAIRS
Band 3 (clear, consistent)
‘Memories of Auschwitz’ uses facts and statistics to
emphasise how bad the Holocaust was - “thousands
of prisoners” could be kept in Auschwitz and “£1.5
million” people were killed there. This huge shocks
readers as it reveals the scale of murder that took
place. The ‘giant snails’ article uses statistics to tell
readers about the giant snail infestation in
Florida. “1000” of the snails are caught each week
and “117,000” have been caught altogether. Even
though this information might surprise the reader,
it is unlikely to have the same impact as the
shocking statistics in Katie Giles’ account.
IN PAIRS
Band 4 (detailed, perceptive)
‘Memories of Auschwitz’ uses facts and statistics
because as well as being a personal account of the
author’s trip it aims to make readers reflect on the
terrible events of the Holocaust. We are told that
“thousands of prisoners” were kept at Auschwitz at
once, which gives us an idea of the scale of the
horror that happened in the concentration camp,
and are told that “£1.5 million” lost their lives
altogether. This staggering number gives us a sense
of what it would be like to visit a place of such
terrible significance. In a similar way, the ‘giant
snails’ article uses statistics to make readers aware
of the scale of an issue , this time of a far less serious
event- the giant snail infestation in Florida. “1000”
of the snails are caught each week and “117,000”
have been caught before, which implies that this
isn’t a small problem. Readers learn that “1,200”
eggs a year are laid so perhaps aren’t surprise the
pests are so widespread.
IN PAIRS
Band 3 (clear, consistent)
Both of these texts shock the readers. In the Costa
Coffee article, readers would be surprised to hear
that “more than 1,700” people applied for just eight
jobs at the coffee chain . This gives us an idea of just
how much competition there is for a single job and
makes us aware of how bad unemployment is. ‘A
Cook’s Tour’ shocks readers with a gory description
of a pig being killed. The writer describes the “fresh
blood flying in every direction”. Rule of three is also
used -“shrieking, squealing, struggling” – to give
readers a clear picture of the pig being slaughtered.
This helps readers understand how upsetting this
was.
IN PAIRS
Band 4 (detailed, perceptive)
Both of these texts shock their readers, but in very
different ways and using different language
techniques to do so. The Costa Coffee article uses
shocking statistics to reveal the difficulties facing
jobseekers in the UK– “more than 1,700” people
applied for just eight jobs at the coffee chain ,
despite wages being as low as £6.10 an hour.
Moreover, the retail chain HMV is closing “66 of 220
UK stores”, meaning more unemployment in
Britain. ‘A Cook’s Tour’ shocks readers with a highly
graphic description of a pig being killed. We are
given the vivid image of “fresh blood flying in every
direction” and the sensory description of the
“shrieking, squealing, struggling” pig as it is being
killed. This alliterative phrase describing the sight
and sound of the dying pig suggests the experience
left a huge impression on the narrator in contrast
to the locals, for whom this is a normal event.
IN PAIRS
Connective
Firstly
Secondly
Thirdly
As well as this
Furthermore
Moreover
Finally
Lastly
Likewise
Similarly
Unlike
As well as
In contrast to
The author / language in the
text…
Advises
Argues
Builds
Connotes
Contrasts
Conveys
Creates
Demonstrates
Describes
Depicts
Emphasises
Evokes
Exaggerates
Gives the impression
Gives a sense
Highlights
Informs
Implies
Indicates
Juxtaposes
Narrates
Persuades
Realises
Recognises
Refers to
Reflects
Represents
Reveals
Signifies
Suggests
Symbolises
Shows
Tells
The reader…
(or ‘we’…)
Is made aware
Is informed
Is told
Is shocked /
fascinated /
persuaded /
made to
sympathise etc.
Learns
Discovers
Realises
USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES

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