Six Sigma

Report
Dr. Ron Lembke
SCM 462
DMAIC
SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Financial return
 Impact on customers and organizational
effectiveness
 Probability of success
 Impact on employees
 Fit to strategy and competitive advantage

SELECTING PROJECTS
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Conformance Projects
Unstructured Performance Projects

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Efficiency Projects

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Acceptable products, not meeting internal goals
Product Design

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Problems because system poorly specified
Not meeting customer CTQ
Process design
DMAIC
Define
 Measure
 Analyze
 Improve
 Control

 (Alternate
meaning: Dumb Managers Always Ignore
Customers)
DEFINE

Charter / rationale for the project



Why this, not others, need for project, costs, benefits
Developing a project charter (statement of the project)
Scoping:




Improve motor reliability
Most problems from brush wear
Problem with brush hardness
Reduce variability of brush hardness
DEFINE
Gather voice of the customer data to identify
critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristics important to
customers
 Select performance metrics
 What are current levels
 Expected improvements
 What will need to be done, by whom

DEFINE

SIPOC Understand the relationships between
Suppliers
 Inputs
 Process
 Outputs
 Customers

MEASURE

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Develop operational definitions for each CTQ characteristic
Figure out how to measure internal processes affecting each
CTQ, KPOV (Key process output variables), KPIV (Input Vars)


Figure out what data we need to collect

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

Y = F(x)
Easy to collect correctly
Interrupt process as little as possible
Collectors understand why collecting
“gage study” to determine the validity (repeatability and
reproducibility) of the measurement procedure for each CTQ
Baseline data


Collect baseline capabilities for each CTQ
Determine the process capability for each CTQ
Y=F(X)
CHECKSHEET
Consider all possibilities
 Be clear – no guessing, training?
 You might have forgotten some
 Might need to revise – some cover too many
things
 Learn about different cases

PARETO CHART
3. Collect the data
 5. Tabulate the data – Do as %, if you want to
 (6. Put each problem into dollars of cost, most
complaints, lost employee minutes, etc.)
 8. Sort biggest to smallest, graph.
 Analyze – p. 87 – what would you fix?

PARETO CHART
Further study of major categories
 Grouping together smaller ones
 Look for common causes

ANALYZE
Understand why defects and variation
occur
 Find the root causes
 5W = 1H
 Identify key causes

 Experiments
to verify impact
 Formulate hypothesis, collect data
ANALYZE


Does the process work the way we think it does?
Identify upstream variables (x’s) for each CTQ

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Process mapping
Operationally define each x
Collect baseline data for each x
Perform studies to determine the validity (repeatability and
reproducibility) of the measurement process for each x
Establish baseline capabilities for each x
Understand the effect of each x on each CTQ
IMPROVE

Brainstorm ideas of potential root causes– everyone
participates


Generate ideas about potential root causes
Understanding the process, not solving the problem yet
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM



Ishikawa, Fishbone
Puts things in an organized way
Separate things into manageable parts (like KJ in that
way)
 Methods,
Materials, Machines, People,
Environment, Information
Create the diagram
 Analyze the diagram – look for cost effective
solutions!

WHY-WHY
Ask “why” 5 times, or as many as it takes
 List of next steps, things to investigate

GRAPHS
Scatter plots - Look for trends
 Run charts – same thing

 DJIA
= Financial Performance?
IMPROVE


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Determine optimal levels of critical x’s to optimize the
spread, shape and center of the CTQ’s
Action plans to implement the optimal level of the x’s
Conduct pilot test of the revised process
RUN INTO RESISTANCE?

Force Field!
FORCE FIELD
ANALYSIS
For and against
 Action items for each
 Strength of each

CONTROL
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Risk abatement planning and mistake-proofing to avoid
potential problems with the revised settings of the x’s
Standardize successful process revisions in training
manuals
Control revised settings of the critical x’s
Turn revised process over to the process owner for
continuous improvement using the PDSA cycle
REPORT PHASE

Tell everyone what you did, so they can learn from it
HW – P. 97

Questions 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 16

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