Accelerating Smart Grid Standards Development

Report
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Accelerating Smart Grid Standards Development
Keeping the Lights On:
Strategies for Compatibility and Interoperability
in Electrical Power Networks
Dr. David Wollman
Leader, Smart Grid Team - Standards
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
October 27, 2011
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Outline
• Introduction
– US Grid and Drivers
– NIST Role within Smart Grid
• Accelerating Smart Grid Standards
– NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, Release 1&2
– Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
– International Coordination
• Research and Standards Acceleration Examples
– Phasor Measurement Units
– Electric power meters, building control systems, …
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Outline
• Introduction
– US Grid and Drivers
– NIST Role within Smart Grid
• Accelerating Smart Grid Standards
– NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, Release 1&2
– Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
– International Coordination
• Research and Standards Acceleration Examples
– Phasor Measurement Units
– Electric power meters, building control systems, …
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
North American Electric Grid
US is 22% of
world consumption
• 3,200 electric utility
companies
• 17,000 power plants
• 800 gigawatt peak
demand
• 165,000 miles of highvoltage lines
• 6 million miles of
distribution lines
• 140 million meters
• $1 trillion in assets
• $350 billion annual
revenues
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Worldwide Investment in the Grid
• International Energy Agency
estimates:
– $10 trillion over next 20
years
– 50% in generation
– 50% in transmission and
distribution
– Does not count customerside investments
• NIST is leading and
accelerating international
standards-setting through
bilateral and multilateral
engagements
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Smart Grid – A National Priority
•
•
•
•
•
“It is the policy of the United States to
support the modernization of the
Nation's electricity [system]… to
achieve…a Smart Grid.” Congress,
Energy Independence and Security Act
of 2007
“We’ll fund a better, smarter electricity
grid and train workers to build it…”
President Obama
“To meet the energy challenge and
create a 21st century energy economy,
we need a 21st century electric grid…”
Secretary of Energy Steven Chu
“A smart electricity grid will
revolutionize the way we use energy,
but we need standards …” Secretary of
Commerce Gary Locke
New Secretary of Commerce John
Bryson – former CEO in energy sector
Smart Grid Enables:
• Higher Penetration
of Renewables
• Smart Charging of
Electric Vehicles
• Consumers to
Control Energy Bills
• Efficient Grid
Operations &
Reduced Losses
• Reduced
Distribution Outages
• Improved System
Reliability &
Security
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What Will the Smart Grid Look Like?
Energy management systems
Dynamic pricing
High use of variable renewables
Distributed generation
and microgrids
Distributed
storage
Ubiquitous networked
sensors
Bidirectional
metering
Smart meters
and real time
usage data
Electric
vehicles
Smart
appliances
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National Institute of Standards and Technology
• Non-regulatory agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce
– Originally National Bureau of Standards (established 1901)
• NIST Laboratories research activities at two main campuses
– Gaithersburg, Maryland and Boulder, Colorado




$515M for Laboratories; over 2800 employees (3 Nobel prizes), 2600
associates, U.S. National Metrology Institute
Strong partnerships with industry, academia, government
Research, calibrations, standard reference materials, data …
Physical, Material Measurements, Engineering, IT Labs
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NIST Roles in the Smart Grid
• Measurement research
– Metering
– Wide area monitoring
(synchrophasors)
– Power electronics
– Building energy
management
– Others …
• Standards (EISA role)
– Interoperability
– Cybersecurity
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Standards – Key Aspect of US Policy
National Technology Transfer and
Advancement Act
- Directs U.S. Federal Agencies to use
voluntary consensus standards developed
by consensus standards bodies, where
possible
- Encourages U.S. Gov’t participation in
voluntary consensus standards bodies
when compatible with missions,
authorities, etc.
- Directs NIST to coordinate Federal
standards and conformity
assessment activities with those
of the private sector
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Standards – Key Aspect of US Policy
The Energy Independence and Security
Act gives NIST “primary responsibility to
coordinate development of a framework
that includes protocols and model
standards for information management
to achieve interoperability of smart grid
devices and systems…”
•
•
•
Congress directed that the framework be “flexible,
uniform, and technology neutral”
Use of these standards is a criteria for federal Smart
Grid Investment Grants
Input to federal and state regulators
The NSTC Subcommittee on
Smart Grid Policy’s “A Policy
Framework for the 21st Century
Grid: Enabling Our Secure
Energy Future” recognizes the
Federal Government’s role to
catalyze the development and
adoption of open standards.
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Standards – Key Aspect of US Policy
The Energy Independence and Security
Act gives NIST “primary responsibility to
coordinate development of a framework
that includes protocols and model
standards for information management
to achieve interoperability of smart grid
devices and systems…”
•
•
•
Congress directed that the framework be “flexible,
uniform, and technology neutral”
Use of these standards is a criteria for federal Smart
Grid Investment Grants
Input to federal and state regulators
Key Federal policy recommendations:
•
Enable cost-effective smart grid
investments
•
Unlock innovation
•
Empower and inform consumers
•
Secure the grid
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US Government Roles in Smart Grid
Federal
Office of Science & Technology
Policy; National Economic Council;
& Council on Environmental Quality
Smart Grid Task Force /
National Science &
Technology Council
Smart Grid
Subcommittee
Other Federal
Agencies (EPA, …)
Federal
Energy
Regulatory
Commission
State
FERC – NARUC
Smart Response Collaborative
Public Utility Commissions
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US Smart Grid Investment Grants
Category
Integrated/Crosscutting
$ Million
2,150
AMI
818
Distribution
254
Transmission
148
Customer Systems
32
Manufacturing
26
Total
Geographic Coverage of Selected Projects
3,429
18 million smart meters
1.2 million in-home display units
SGIG Topic Areas
206,000 smart transformers
177,000 load control devices
170,000 smart thermostats
877
networked phasor measurement units
671
automated substations
100
PEV charging stations
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Outline
• Introduction
– US Grid and Drivers
– NIST Role within Smart Grid
• Accelerating Smart Grid Standards
– NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, Release 1&2
– Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
– International Coordination
• Research and Standards Acceleration Examples
– Phasor Measurement Units
– Electric power meters, building control systems, …
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
NIST Three Phase Plan for Smart Grid Interoperability
PHASE 1
Identify an initial set of
existing consensus
standards and develop
a roadmap to fill gaps
PHASE 2
Establish Smart Grid
Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
public-private forum with
governance for ongoing efforts
PHASE 3
Conformity Framework
(includes Testing and
Certification)
Summer 2009 Workshops
Draft Framework Sept 2009
Smart Grid Interoperability
Panel Established Nov 2009
NIST Interoperability Framework 1.0
Released Jan 2010
2009
2010
SGIP
meetings
Technical
information to
support regulators
2011
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
NIST Smart Grid Framework and Roadmap 1.0
• Published January 2010
– Extensive public input and review
– Completed in Less than 1 year
• Smart Grid Vision & Reference
Model
• Identified 75 existing standards
• 16 Priority Action Plan Projects
are filling key gaps
• Companion Cyber Security
Strategy
http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/
Release 2.0 now open for Public Comment
(Federal Register Notice, Oct 25)
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
SGIP Stakeholder Categories
1
2
3
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5
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7
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10
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Appliance and consumer electronics
providers
Commercial and industrial equipment
manufacturers and automation vendors
Consumers – Residential, commercial,
and industrial
Electric transportation industry
Stakeholders
Electric utility companies – Investor
Owned Utilities (IOU)
Electric utility companies - Municipal
(MUNI)
Electric utility companies - Rural Electric
Association (REA)
Electricity and financial market traders
(includes aggregators)
12
Power equipment manufacturers and
vendors
13
Professional societies, users groups,
and industry consortia
14
R&D organizations and academia
15
Relevant Government Agencies
16
Renewable Power Producers
17
Retail Service Providers
18
Standard and specification
development organizations (SDOs)
19
State and local regulators
20
Testing and Certification Vendors
21
Transmission Operators and
Independent System Operators
22
Venture Capital
18
Independent power producers
Information and communication
technologies (ICT) Infrastructure and
Service Providers
Information technology (IT) application
developers and integrators
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SGIP Organization
SGIP
Officers
Governing
Board
NIST
SGIP Administrator
Test & Certification
Committee
(SGTCC)
Architecture
Committee
(SGAC)
Cyber Security
Working Group
(CSWG)
Comm.
Marketing
Education
(CME)
PAP 2
PAP 3
PAP 4
PAP …
PAP 17
Priority Action Plan Teams
Standing Committees &
Working Groups
Program
Mgmt
Office
(PMO)
PAP 1
Bylaws &
Operating
Procedures
(BOP)
Coordination Functions
BnP
H2G
B2G
TnD
I2G
PEV2G
Electromagnetic
Interoperability Issues
Domain Expert Working Groups
SGIP Membership
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Energy Usage Information Standard
Standardizes data elements
available to consumers or
authorized 3rd party application
providers
class EnergyUsageInformation
Interv alReading
+
+
+
+
+
cost: float [0..1]
endTimeStamp: dateTime [0..1]
ID: string [0..1]
timeStamp: dateTime [0..1]
value: float [0..1]
0..*
Reading
ReadingQuality
+
+
+
+
cost: float [0..1]
ID: string [0..1]
timeStamp: dateTime [0..1]
value: float [0..1]
0..*
+
quality: string [0..1]
•Work initiated (SGIP PAP10) - July 2009
•Requirements finalized - June 2010
•Standard developed and published by
NAESB - December 2010
•Follow on Standardization Energy Service
20
Provider Interface (ESPI) – Oct 2011
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Cyber Security Working Group
• Permanent Working Group
– Over 650 public and private sector
participants
• August 2010 NIST publishes: Guidelines
for Smart Grid Cyber Security
– Risk assessment guidance for implementers
– Recommended security requirements
– Privacy recommendations
• Collaborating with:
– DOE NESCOR on SEP 1.0 and 1.1 guidance
– DOE/NERC/NIST on risk management
document
– NERC Task Force on Cybersecurity
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NIST & SGIP Activities Going Forward
• Framework Release 2.0 – receive comments,
resolve, publish final version
• Smart Grid Interoperability Panel
–
–
–
–
Executing work program
Process improvements to address utility concerns
Testing and certification programs
Cybersecurity standards and guidelines
• Continuing engagement with FERC and state
regulators on standards matters
• Additional outreach and engagement with
international standards organizations and
government-government interactions
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
SGIP International Collaboration Objectives
• Help provide leadership to the global community of smart grid
interoperability stakeholders.
• Coordination with different national Smart Grid efforts to encourage
alignment and minimize issues surrounding harmonization and
interoperability.
• Outreach to discover (and coordinate with) people and organizations with
smart grid interoperability needs and interests, bring awareness to the
SGIP effort and encourage partnership in regions where access to North
American meetings may be difficult.
• Leverage resources and expedite work to address common gaps shared
across different regions of the world, learn from other Smart Grid
successes and failures, and share those experiences through the SGIP.
• Increase international participation in the SGIP in its unique role as a
facilitating organization that works with all standards development groups.
• Provide a forum to discuss ways to effectively engage developers of
smart grid international standards, irrespective of where such people are
located.
23
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Outreach and Engagement Examples
• George Arnold, National Coordinator for Smart Grid
Interoperability, NIST
• Work within Standards Development Organizations
– Mix of leadership, technical involvement
• Liaisons examples
– IEC Strategy Group 3 – NIST liaison
– CEN-CENELEC-ETSI SG-Coordination Group – NIST liaison,
draft white paper completed, focus on architectures
– ITU-T Focus Group on Smart Grid – NIST liaison
– IEEE – NIST liaison
– ISO, ISGAN, etc.
• SGIP membership, Letters of Intent
– SGIP International Task Force established to address
international collaboration and cooperation
24
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Outline
• Introduction
– US Grid and Drivers
– NIST Role within Smart Grid
• Accelerating Smart Grid Standards
– NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, Release 1&2
– Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
– International Coordination
• Research and Standards Acceleration Examples
– Phasor Measurement Units
– Electric power meters, building control systems, …
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Real-time Data Management Needs
•
•
•
•
Smart Meters
Synchro Phasors
Embedded Sensors
Distributed Generation
Output
• Building Automation
Wide Area Situational Awareness
• Monitors the health of the electric power grid
• Will reduce blackouts and interruptions
• Make operation of the grid more efficient
• Priority in FERC policy statement
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
NIST Research: SynchroMetrology Laboratory
• Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) provide situational
awareness and advance warning for grid operations
• NIST has unique PMU calibration special test service
• NIST has provided measurement assistance to manufacturers
and utilities on design, testing and use of PMUs, and has helped
to evaluate and improve standards.
• Example: Mandatory testing of PMUs to be used in Brazil
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI)
Western
Interconnection
(Quebec
Interconnection)
Eastern
Interconnection
Western
Interconnection
Texas/TRE/ERCOT
Interconnection
Eastern
Interconnection
NERC Reliability Regions
• Project sponsored by
DOE and the North
American Electric
Reliability Corporation
(NERC)
• Promoting “better use of
measurements and
information to improve
system performance”
• NIST important
contributor, lead of
performance requirements
team
• NASPI provides input to
standards process (IEEE)
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
NIST Research: SynchroMetrology Laboratory
• North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPInet)
• Developed PMU test methods under dynamic conditions (changing
frequency and phase) for inclusion in IEEE C37.118.1 standard
• Developing test methods for PMU calibrators, adding capability to test
PMUs with 1588 synchronization capability
• Introduction of message transmission of synchrophasor data using IEC
61850 substation automation standard
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NIST Static PMU Calibration System
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NIST Dynamic PMU Test System
• Testbed Synchronized
to UTC
• Generates signals
modulated in amplitude,
and frequency / phase
• Generates steps in
magnitude, phase, or
freq.
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NIST Research: Electric Power Metering
• All electric energy (kilowatt-hours) sold in the U.S. (over $300
Billion/year) is traceable to NIST Electric Power Laboratory
• ANSI C12 standards for electricity metering, typically mandated in the
U.S. by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs)
• NIST chair of ANSI C12 main committee (NEMA)
• Project leader of Power & Energy research/calibration service
• Quantum watt: successfully tied electric
power to quantum standards (major
development effort: DSP-based waveform
generator, world’s best voltage amplifier, AC
Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard)
- uncertainties decreased from 15 to 2 ppm
• Future: three phase power, distorted power
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NIST Research: Building Automation Control
• Addressing the role of the building in
the smart grid:
– 72% of all electricity is consumed by
building system loads.
– NIST building smart grid research is
focused on grid-aware energy
management in complex facilities.
– Research leads to information models
that enable communication standards for
the Smart Grid
– Building systems control strategies for
load, generation and storage
management
– Net-zero residential building testbed
– Islanding strategies for graceful
degradation of building system
performance during grid outages
NIST Virtual Cybernetic
Building Testbed
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Smart Grid Challenges and Opportunities
• Metering
– Bidirectional metering, testbeds…
• Sensors and automated control
– PMUs, time synchronization, distributed sensors…
• Smart Grid architecture and operations
– Research/modeling of grid stability (load/generation)
– Microgrids, …
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Power Electronics
Electromagnetic Compatibility/Interference
Energy Efficiency
Integration with Net-Zero Buildings
Cybersecurity
Electric Vehicles/Storage
Communication protocols
Testing and certification activities, many others …
File copy provided by http://www.wll.com
Contact info
• Dr. David Wollman
NIST Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Office
U.S. Department of Commerce
1-301-975-2433
[email protected]
Dr. George Arnold
National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability
[email protected]
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