Unit 6. Week 1. DNA and RNA (2)

Report
Warm Up
1. Name the modes of inheritance.
2. If a person has the genotypes IA IA or IA I, what
blood type do they have?
3. When there are only 3 phenotypes in an
organism, what are the possible types of
inheritance?
Agenda
• Objective: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made up
of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine,
and thymine
–
–
–
–
Go over Quizzes and options to improve your grade
KWL Chart on DNA
DNA Activity
Approximately 20 minutes to work on corrections
• Notebooks: please turn them in at the end of
class today
Quizzes
• Hand back
• Pass out cheat sheet
• Options for improving grade
– Retake (You would have to come in after school or
during lunch)
– Corrections (You will have an opportunity to start
during class today)
Correction Example
• Mom is heterozygous for Type A blood. Dad has
type AB blood. What possible blood types could
their children inherit? (2 points)
Based on the Punnett Square, there
are three different possibilities. If a
person has a genotype of IA IA or IA i,
then they have type A blood. If a person
has IB i then they have type B blood.
Finally if a person has IA IB then the
person has type AB blood. That means
these parents could have a child with
Type A, B or AB blood.
Another example
• Human height and weight are determined by
multiple different genes. As a result, there is a
wide variety of heights and weights for people to
express. What type of inheritance is this?
(incomplete, co-dominance, multiple alleles,
polygenic, sex-linked)? (1 point)
• Say I put down that it was incomplete dominance.
I would explain that it’s actually polygenic
because the problem says both traits are
determined by multiple genes. Polygenic literally
means “many” “genes”.
KWL Chart
What do we already know about DNA?
•
•
•
•
•
It’s a type of nucleic acid
It stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA is found in all cells
In Eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in the nucleus
It carries our genetic information and determines
our traits
• Segments of DNA are called genes
• DNA is bundled up into chromosomes
Why is DNA important?
• DNA contains our genetic information
• DNA is a set of instructions within the cell for
making proteins
• Proteins determine just about everything about
you
–
–
–
–
Whether you are lactose intolerant
What skin color you have
Your eye color
Control the rate of reactions in our body
Warm up
Directions: Unless I tell you otherwise, you do not
have to copy the questions anymore  But you
need to date every warm up.
Name at least two reasons why DNA is important.
Write in complete sentences.
Agenda
• Objectives: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made
up of nucleotides that follow the base pairing rule
AND compare and contrast DNA and RNA by
creating a chart
• Finish Building DNA Activity
• Notes
• Exit Ticket
• Work on Quiz Corrections
Announcements
• Quiz Corrections are due tomorrow. You will get a little
time at the end of class to work and ask me questions.
• You can come in to retake, or take the quiz for the first
time, during lunch or after school
• For warm-ups you will not always get a stamp if you
simply finished the warm up. I will start checking for
correct answers.
DNA building activity
What is the Structure of DNA?
a. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
or DNA looks like a
twisted ladder or double
helix
b. It’s made up of
subunits called
nucleotides
-
Each nucleotide has a
sugar, a phosphate and
a nitrogen base
Label the parts on your copy:
Phosphate
Hydrogen
Bonds
Sugar
a. DNA has the
sugar
deoxyribose
“D” for
deoxyribose
Types of Nitrogen Bases
a.
There are 4 types of nitrogen bases in DNA
-
b.
A= Adenine
T= Thymine
C= Cytosine
G= Guanine
Nitrogen bases connect the 2 strands of DNA
together, like the rungs (steps) of a ladder
Exit Ticket
1. Each nucleotide has a ________,
____________ and ___________ ________
2. If one strand of DNA was ACTACTGGG, what
would be the complimentary strand?
Warm Up
1. Give yourself a rating for each one of the
following categories. Be honest.
Agenda
• Objectives: SWBAT: compare and contrast DNA
and RNA by creating a chart AND Describe that
replication is when DNA makes a copy of itself.
• Comparison Chart
• Coloring and Labeling Activity
• Video
• White Board Activity ( If we have time)
• Exit Ticket
• Reminder: Turn in your quiz corrections. Friday is
the last day to do a retake.
DNA
• Contains all our genetic information
• Is made up of subunits called ______________
• Each subunit contains a phosphate, _________
and _______________ _________
Base Pairing
a.
Nitrogen bases pair up to make the steps of the
ladder
b.
In DNA
-
“A” always pairs with “T”
And
“C” always pairs with “G”
Complementary Strands
a.
Each strand of DNA is complimentary to the
other
–
b.
That means that each strand’s nitrogen bases
match up (A - T, C - G)
Example: If the code on one strand of DNA is
ACGTC, then the complimentary strand would
be TGCAG
Practice Problems: Write the Complimentary
Strand
1. ATCGC
2. TGCAGA
3. CCCGTACGTA
4. TAGTGACTAGC
RNA
a.
RNA is another type of nucleic acid that’s found
in the nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell
b.
Unlike DNA, RNA is made up of only one
strand of nucleotides
Difference in Nitrogen Bases
a. Instead of having
the base thymine,
RNA has the base
uracil
b. That means when
RNA is formed,
adenine pairs with
uracil (A - U)
Sugars
a. One main
difference between
RNA and DNA is
that they are made
up of different
sugars
-
RNA has the sugar
ribose
DNA has the sugar
deoxyribose
DNA vs. RNA
DNA
RNA
DNA vs. RNA
Found in the
nucleus
Double-stranded
(double helix)
Deoxyribose sugar
Found in the nucleus
and cytoplasm
Single-stranded
A pairs with T
A pairs with U
T pairs with A
U pairs with A
Ribose sugar
• You will have 10
minutes to color in
your molecule of DNA
and strand of mRNA.
• Create a key that
shows me which
shape represents
each base.
• Make each base a
different color
Warm Up
1. Name the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA
2. If a strand of DNA has the bases AATGGCTCA,
what would the complimentary strand look like?
3. What is one difference between DNA and RNA
Agenda
• Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication,
transcription and translation are codependent
processes that ultimately make proteins AND In
transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a
strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine.
•
•
•
•
Notes
White Board Practice
Video Clips
Practice Problems
Before a cell divides, what does it need
to do?
• Demo
DNA Replication Video
• http://www.dnatube.com/video/365/DNAReplication
Enzymes
a.
Enzymes are responsible for unzipping the
DNA and adding the bases to form the 2 new
molecules.
b.
Enzymes are proteins in our cells. They help
regulate chemical reactions in our body.
c.
Helicases are enzymes that split the DNA and
DNA polymerase adds the bases
d.
Proteins help make proteins!
White Board Practice
1.
What’s missing in this nucleotide?
deoxyribose + phosphate + _________
2
What type of sugar does RNA have?
3
What are the subunits that make up DNA and
RNA called?
4
“A” stands for what?
“C” stands for what?
5.
“A” pairs with ____
“C” pairs with ____
6.
“G” stands for what?
“T” stands for what?
7
(DNA or RNA)_________ is made up of 2 strands
of nucleotides.
8
If the code of bases on one strand of DNA is
AGCCTAGG, then what is the code on the
complimentary strand?
9
What is the process that makes a copy of DNA?
10
In RNA, Thymine is replaced with ________
11
• Is this a strand of DNA or RNA?
– AGCCGUUAUGCGAU
Importance of DNA
• DNA is responsible for providing instructions
to make proteins.
• Proteins are responsible for the
expression of our genes.
• Ex. A protein is responsible for the amount of
melanin in your skin. The more melanin you
have, the darker your skin is.
How are proteins made?
•
In order to make proteins, 3 processes must
occur
-
DNA Replication (makes DNA)
Transcription (makes mRNA)
Translation (makes proteins)
What happens during
Transcription?
•
A strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) is
made using DNA as a template.
What happens during
Transcription?
•
•
•
•
One strand of the DNA is the template
Nitrogen bases attach to the DNA by following the
base pairing rule except U will replace T
The sequence (order of the nitrogen bases) of RNA
depends on the strand of DNA
Example:
A-C-C-A-A-A
U-G-G-U-U-U
demo
mRNA
• Just like DNA is split up into segments called
genes, a strand of mRNA is split up into
sections called codons.
• Codons are “words” of mRNA that are made up
of three nitrogen bases.
– Example: AUC or GGU
• Codons code for amino acids that make up
proteins
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY
• http://www.teachersdomain.org/search/?q=dna+r
eplication&start=0&fq_media_type=Video&fq_gra
de=PK&fq_grade=PS
Practice Work Sheet
Brain Pop Video
• http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthan
ddevelopment/rna/
• http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-thecode-of-life.html
Warm Up
Agenda
• Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication,
transcription and translation are codependent
processes that ultimately make proteins AND In
transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a
strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine.
• Transcription Activity
• Exit Ticket
• http://www.schooltube.com/video/d2d0cc18a0164
5f19168/DNA-Rap-Video

similar documents