8th Grade Science Warm-ups • These go in the 2nd section of your binder. • Write the Date and Title. • Copy and answer the questions. Warm-up #1 Unscramble the following words for a sneak peek of the topics we will cover this year! a) bla lsslik b) mcytsheri c) areht ieenccs d) lobogiy The underlined letter is the first letter of each word. Unscramble the following words for a sneak peek of the topics we will cover this year! a) b) c) d) bla lsslik mcytsheri areht ieenccs lobogiy a) b) c) d) Lab Skills Chemistry Earth Science Biology The underlined letter is the first letter of each word. What’s wrong? See if you can identify 6 different safety concerns shown in the picture below. Image: http://morrisonlabs.com/lab_safety.htm The answers are … Don’t fool around during a lab. Always point test tubes and other items away from yourself and others when heating. Don’t eat or drink while in the lab. Keep hair and other flammable objects away from flames. Don’t leave a flame unattended. Image: http://morrisonlabs.com/lab_safety.htm Always wear safety goggles when doing an experiment Warm-up #3 Read the scenario on the following page. Do NOT copy the paragraph or questions. Answer the questions in complete sentences. SpongeBob and Patrick love to go jellyfishing. They wondered if a new brand of jellyfish bait would help them catch more jellyfish. To test their idea, they bought a big container of bait for their next 3 trips to their top-secret fishing spot. SpongeBob fished without any bait, while Patrick used the new bait. Both of them kept track of how many jellyfish they caught in 30 minutes, which is shown in the chart. SpongeBob Patrick 1.Which person was the control? 2. What is the independent variable? 3. What is the dependent variable? 25 24 18 28 26 19 Warm-up #4 Joey’s brand new shoes have created black scuff marks all over the tile floor. Joey wants to know which cleaner will remove the marks the best; Clorox, 409, or Mr. Clean. 1. Write a hypothesis for Joey. 2. What would be his independent variable? 3. What would be his dependent variable? Warm-up #5 Name that vocabulary word! Write the statement and answer. 1. I have mass and take up space. 2. I am the building block of all matter. 3. I am made of only one type of atom. 4. I am a chemical combination of different atoms. Warm-up #6 Name that vocabulary word! Write the statement and answer. 1. I am a physical combination of substances. 2. I am a mixture of uniform composition. 3. You can see my different parts. 4. I am another name for homogeneous mixture. Warm-up #7 A hypothesis is _______________. The ______ variable is what is measured in an experiment. ________ are chemical combinations of two or more atoms. A salad is an example of a _____ mixture. Warm-up #8 Copy and answer. 1. Atomic number = _____________ 2. The number of ______ identifies the element. 3. How do you estimate neutrons in an atom? 4. What is the charge of the subatomic particle? Warm-up #9 Use the periodic table to answer the questions. 1. What is the atomic number for Chlorine? 2. What is the atomic mass for Boron? 3. How many protons are in an atom of Na? 4. How many neutrons are in an atom of He? 5. How many electrons are in an atom of Cl? 6. How many neutrons are in an atom of Na? The answers are … 2 He Helium 4.003 5 B Boron 10.81 11 Na Sodium 22.990 1. What is the atomic number for Chlorine? 2. What is the atomic mass for Boron? 17 10.81 or 11 3. How many protons are in an atom of Na? 11 4. How many neutrons are in an atom of He? 2 5. How many electrons are in an atom of Cl? 17 6. How many neutrons are in an atom of Na? 12 17 Cl Chlorine 35.453 Warm-up #10 Copy and complete the following paragraph. Dmitri_____ made the first periodic table by arranging the elements in order of increasing ____ and grouping them by similar ____. The modern periodic table is arranged by increasing ____. The rows are called ____ and the columns are called _____. Warm-up #11 What is it? Rearrange the symbols for the elements and use the clues provided to figure out the words. Example: Something to follow Thorium + Protactinium Th + Pa PATH 1. You’ll want to be first! Cerium + Radium 2. Masked bandit Nitrogen + Cobalt + Radium + Oxygen 3. Beware of this snake! Oxygen + Carbon + Boron + Radium The answers are … 1. You’ll want to be first! Cerium + Radium Ce + Ra 2. Masked bandit Nitrogen + Cobalt + Radium + Oxygen 3. Beware of this snake! Oxygen + Carbon + Boron + Radium RACE N + Co + Ra + O RACOON O + C + B + Ra COBRA Warm-up #12 Use your knowledge of the periodic table to identify the following information: 1. I am an Alkaline Earth Metal and have 4 energy levels. 2. I am a Halogen with 45 neutrons. 3. I am a transition metal with 40 electrons. 4. I am the only metalloid in group 3A. 5. I have 6 energy levels and 4 valence electrons Warm-up #13 Copy and Answer the following: 1. A ______ is a description of the characteristics of a substance. 2. A ______ property can be observed without changing the identity of the substance. 3. Density is ______ divided by the ________. 4. ________ is the amount of heat needed to change the temperature of an object. Warm-Up #14 Copy and answer the following: 1. A ___________ property can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance. 2. _____ is the ability of a metal to be drawn into wires. 3. Flammability is an example of a _______ property. 4. Malleability is an example of a ________ property. Warm-up #15 Copy and Answer: 1. What is the density of a substance with a mass of 40g and a volume of 20mL. 2. Would this object sink or float when placed in a container of pure water? 3. What piece of equipment is used to measure the volume of a liquid? Warm-up #16 Answer using complete sentences. 1. Describe how the particles are arranged when matter is in the solid phase. 2. Describe the shape and volume of a liquid. 3. How does heating a liquid cause it turn into a gas? 4. What phase change occurs when a liquid converts to a solid? Warm-up #17 Answer using complete sentences. 1. What is the main difference between physical and chemical changes? 2. What are 4 clues that indicate a chemical reaction has happened? 3. What is a precipitate? Warm-up #18 Copy and Answer #1-3. Just answer #4. 1. Chemical changes are also called chemical ___ 2. During a chemical reaction atoms may be ____, _____, or ____ to make new substances. 3. A ________ is the force of attraction that holds atoms together in a compound. 4. Draw a sketch of the periodic table and indicate where the metals are located and where the nonmetals are located. Warm-up #19 Copy and Answer #1-2. 1. Ionic bonds are formed by ________ electrons between a ______ and ______. 2. According to the law of conservation of _____, the mass of the reactants must equal the ____. 3. Label the reactants and products in this reaction: AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3 Warm-up #20 1. Copy and answer: SO2 is held together by ___ bonds which are formed by ______ valence electrons. Copy the following equation. Then use it to give the requested info. 4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 2. Label the reactants and products. 3. Draw an illustration of this reaction showing the number of atoms and molecules. 4. Count the # of each type of atom on each side of the equation: Reactants Products Atoms of Fe=____ Atoms of O=____ Atoms of Fe=____ Atoms of O=____ Warm-up #21 Copy and answer: 1. What is the atomic number of Phosphorus? 2. Would silver nitrate (AgNO3) be considered and element, compound, or mixture? 3. How many valence electrons are in Chlorine? 4. Complete the missing information: ___CH4 + ___O2 → ___CO2 + ___H2O Warm-up #22 Copy and answer: 1. Magnesium has ____ protons. 2. An ________ reaction is one that produces (gives off) heat. 3. According to the Collision Theory particles must ______ with enough ______ to react. 4. The rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by: Warm-up #23 Copy and answer: 1. The rate of a reaction can be increased by_______ the temperature. 2. A ______ is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed by that reaction. 3. A reaction that absorbs heat would be ____. 4. How many protons and neutrons are in an atom of sodium? Warm-up #24 Copy and answer: 1. The ability of a substance to dissolve is ______, and is an example of a ______ property. 2. Vertical columns on the periodic table are _____, and their number tells the number of _______. 3. 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O 4g 32g ?g Warm-up #25 Copy and Answer: 1. Compounds are held together by attractions between atoms called __________. Answer using a complete sentence: 2. How would you define/explain the concept of energy? 3. Where do we get energy? Warm-up #26 Copy and Answer: 1. Energy is the ability to do __________. 2. Work must result in ______________. 3. Energy that is stored is ___________. 4. Energy that is being used to cause motion is ____________. Warm-up #27 Copy and Answer: 1. Potential energy stored in the bonds between atoms is ______. 2. Gravitational potential energy is stored due to the ____ and mass of an object. 3. Electrical energy is caused by the motion of ___ 4. The motion of atoms and molecules within a substance creates _____ which is also known as ____energy. Warm-up #28 Copy and Answer. 1. Electromagnetic waves are ______energy. 2. Longitudinal waves are ________. 3. Nuclear energy stores energy in the ____. 4. Fission is an example of _______ energy and occurs by ________ nuclei. Warm-up #29 Copy and Answer. 1. The four types of potential energy are: 2. The five types of kinetic energy are: 3. The Law of ________________ states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be ___________ from one type to another. Warm-up #30 Copy and Answer. 1. Wind would be an example of _____ energy. 2. When the wind turns a windmill there is a build-up of _____ energy. 3. This energy can be used to transfer electrons through a wire in the form of _______ energy. Warm-up #31 1. Describe the flow of heat when you place an ice cube into a glass of tea. 2. Trace the transformations of energy that must occur to fuel your body. Warm-up #32 1. Trace the transformations of energy needed to power a car. Start with the sun. 2. Resources that can be easily replenished are __________. 3. Resources that cannot be easily replaced are __________. Warm-up #33 1. List five renewable resources. 2. List four nonrenewable resources. 3. Most of the energy needs of Americans are powered by _____ resources. Warm-up #34 1. What type of energy stores energy due to the position (height) of an object? 2. Solar power is a ___ source of energy, and it represents ___ energy caused by fusion. 3. Hydropower is an example of ____ energy and is harnessed by using a ______. Warm-up #35 Copy and answer. 1. The following sources of energy are considered fossil fuels: 2. Uranium is used to harness _____energy. Answer 3. What energy transformations must occur (starting with the sun) in order to bake a cake in the oven? Warm-up #36 1. Draw and explain the greenhouse effect. 2. Is the greenhouse effect good or bad? 3. What particular gas is thought to increase the magnitude of the greenhouse effect? Warm-up #37 1. Describe the structure of a water molecule. 2. Define specific heat. 3. Define density. 4. How do you determine if a substance will float? Warm-up #38 1. A water molecule has oppositely charged ends making it __________. 2. Water molecules stick to each other by _______ 3. Water molecules stick to other things by ______ 4. _______makes water “tougher” on the top layer. Warm-up #39 Copy and Answer. 1. ___________________ utilizes the principles of ___________ and __________ to move water up narrow, porous spaces. 2. Water molecules exhibit high adhesion to substances that are ______________. Warm-up #40 Copy and Answer 1. Cold water is ______ dense than warm water so cold water will _________. 2. However, ice is ______ dense than liquid water so it will _________. 3. Evaporation is a cooling process because of the high _________________ of water. 4. Water has a high ____________ which allows it to absorb a great deal of heat without drastically changing temperature. Warm-up #41 1. Water covers about ____% of the planet, but only about ____% is good for human consumption. 2. The ________________ describes the movement of water through different phases and reservoirs. 3. The ______ provides the energy necessary to drive the water cycle. 4. Sketch and label the water cycle. Warm-up #42 1. ________________ is the amount of time that a water molecule remains in a given reservoir. 2. Name 5 reservoirs of water on earth. 3. A river basin is the _____ drained by a _____. 4. A __________ is a smaller portion of land within a river basin that drains into a stream or tributary before flowing into the larger river. Warm-up #43 Copy and Answer 1. The region where a river flows into the ocean is a(n) _________. 2. A wetland with trees, bushes, and shrubs is a _________. 3. We live in the _______ River Basin. 4. Lakes, streams and wetlands form when the ________________ is at the surface.