Cooling Methods

Report
UNDERSTANDING CPU’S
By: Matt Walbert, Alex Puleo, Anthony Minnocci, Chris Barrett
CPU TYPES
•
AMD
•
Intel
DIFFERENCES
Intel
AMD
Core Frequency
Faster (more cycles per
second)
Lesser work cycle (more data
per cycle)
Socket Type
1366 Pins (LGA1366 Socket) 938 Pins (AM3 Socket)
Performance
has multitasking with its
hypertreading technology
has graphical processing
capability
POWER CONSUMPTION
• Intel
• i3
• i5
• i7
• AMD
• Phenom II Series
FRONT SIDE BUS (FSB)
•
carries data to northbridge
•
connects CPU to rest of chipset
•
Transfer Rates
• 32bit/64bit CPU
• FSB operating frequency
• number of FSB cycles
HYPER THREADING
• multiple tasks at once
• decreasing dependent instructions
• Intel
• Improvements
• improved reactions
• running simultaneous threads
• Drawbacks with earlier OS
MULTI-CORE PROCESSORS
• 2 or more processors working simultaneously on the same
integrated circuit to execute instructions
• Integrated circuit – another name for computer chip
• System can perform more tasks, with better performance
DUAL CORE PROCESSORS
• 2 execution processor cores side-by-side on the same integrated
circuit
• Each core has it’s own cache
• 2 complete cores to boost a systems multitasking capabilities
• Each core executing different instructions
http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/supercharge-javaapplications-on-multi-core-servers/
TRIPLE-CORE PROCESSORS
• 3 processing cores on a single chip
• All simultaneously co-working for added performance and multi-tasking.
• HD entertainment, content creation, & gaming application
• Example: AMD Phenom x3
QUAD-CORE PROCESSORS
• 2 separate dual-core processors on a chip
• Cores 1 & 2 share a cache memory
• Cores 3 & 4 share a cache memory
• If cores 1 & 2 need to communicate with 3 & 4 it occurs via the
front-side bus
• Intel and AMD both offer quad-core processors
http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/quadcore/images/2006.int.qua.txt.EN.13x18.jpg
TECHNOLOGY NEEDED?
• Operating Systems & applications running to support thread-level
parallelism (TLP)
• Multi-threading capability
• Ability of an OS to execute different parts of a program
called threads, simultaneously.
• Modern OS
• Typically XP or above
• Ability to run virus scanner, streaming radio, surfing the web
all while not seeing a drop in performance
PROCESSOR SPEEDS
• Known as Clock-speed, it is the speed at which microprocessors
execute instructions.
• Every CPU requires a fixed number of ‘clock-cycles’ to execute
each instruction
• The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute
per second.
• Superscalar:
• The ability of a processor to execute more than one
instruction per clock cycle. All modern processors are
superscalar
http://singularity.com/images/charts/MicroprocessorClockSpeed.jpg
PROCESSOR SPEEDS…
• MHz : megahertz
• 1 MHz = 1 million clock cycles per second
• Ex: 500MHz = 500 million cycles per second to execute
• GHz : gigahertz
• 1 GHz = 1 billion clock cycles per second
• 3.3Ghz = 3.3Billion clock cycles per second to execute
OVER-CLOCKING
• A technique used by some to squeeze extra performance out of
the advertised speed that the CPU was made for.
• Can be done by setting a jumper on the motherboard
• Typically voids the warranty of the processor
• Risks damaging and overheating the CPU
CUTTING-EDGE MODERN PROCESSORS
•
Intel Core i7 extreme edition processor
• Hyper-threading technology across 6 cores
• Hyper-threading: technology developed by intel that enables multi-threaded
software applications to execute threads in parallel on a single multi-core
processor
• 15 MB of cache
• 3.3 GHz processing speed
• 1600 MHz front-side bus speed
•
AMD Operton 6200 series
• Worlds first 16 core processor
• Features a coreTurbo technology that enables the processor to boost its speed to
up to 500MHz - 1GHz depending on what is being asked of it
BASICS FOR CACHE
•
Definition: Specialized form of memory in a computer
•
It is designed to speed up the computer by prioritizing its contents for quick, easy access
MULTILEVEL CACHE
• Used for Multicore Processors
• Each processor has its own L1 cache
• This allows for each core to access its cache without
interfering with other core’s caches
• Uses the L2 cache as a shared storage for all
processors
L1
•
L1  Level 1
• The smallest, but fastest cache
• Generally checked first
• It is generally on-chip for optimal speed and bandwidth
L2
•
L2  Level 2
• Larger, but slower cache
• Location
• Coupled closely with the CPU
• May be on-chip tho
TROUBLESHOOTING CACHE
• Problem Indications:
• Unexplained system crashes
• System failed to boot
• Slower than usual performance
• Reseat the cache module
• Check BIOS settings
• Check for overheating problems
32 BIT
• Maximum amount of memory is 4 Gbytes
• Can process 32 bits of information at a time
• 32 bit applications can run on 64 bit applications
64 BIT
• Can access 64 bits of information at a time
• Amount of memory  16.8 TB
• Applications can typically run better on a
64-bit systems
32 BIT VS. 64 BIT
• 64 bit has an advantage over 32 bit because of the amount of
memory it can hold.
• As bits increase:
• Data can be accessed in larger chunks and more accurately
• The system can access larger number of locations in memory
COOLING METHODS
• Heat Sinks- transfer heat
• CPU and Case Fans- move air
Over motherboard
• Liquid Cooling systems- used on RAM, processor, and
chipsets
• Thermal Compound- Between processor and heat sink
• Staying Cool is key!
SOCKET TYPES
• Connection between processor and
Motherboard
• Allow Processor alone to be replaced
• Large pin sockets: Zero-insertion (compression
used), Land grid array (surface plate)
TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESSORS
• PC locks up after startup
• Beep is heard after startup and boot fails
• PC crashes on startup or when running
applications
PC LOCKS UP
• Possibly heating/ cooling problem
• Check parts like heatsink, and fan
• Is thermal paste there?
• If processor is new:
- clock jumpers on motherboard
- BIOS settings not correct
POST BEEP CODE
• Is CPU getting power?, replace if so
• Motherboard second culprit
• Power surge
PC CRASHES ON STARTUP
• Run diagnostic software
• Viruses could be cause
• Motherboard or chipset could be cause
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHJ0EfvDlH8
WORKS CITED
• http://heatexchanger-design.com/2011/03/07/heat-sink-2/
• http://www.tweaknews.net/reviews/gigabyte_3d_galaxyII_
liquid_cooling_system/
• http://www.cheap-computers-guide.com/cpu-installationguide.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CPU_Socket_775_T.jpg
• http://www.playtool.com/pages/biosfiddling/fiddle.html
• http://www.rumtechit.co.uk/
WORKS CITED
•
http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/processor_list.asp
•
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/multi_core_technology.html
•
http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/dual_core.asp
•
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/Q/quad_core.html
•
http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture/downloads/quad-core-06.pdf
•
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/Hyper_Threading.html
•
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/G/GHz.html
•
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-core_processor
•
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHJ0EfvDlH8
WORKS CITED
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-side_bus
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_CPU_power_dissipation
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyper-threading
• http://maketecheasier.com/differences-between-intel-and-amdcpu/2010/08/04
WORKS CITED
•
http://www.isi.edu/lsam/about/caches.html
•
http://www.custom-build-computers.com/L2-Cache-Problems.html
•
http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=102308&seqNum=6
•
LabSim

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