Synchrophasors Pilot Projects

Report
Experience of Up-scaling and
Integration of Regional Level
Synchrophasors Pilot Projects to a
National Level project
V.K. AGRAWAL
Power System Operation
Corporation/NLDC, India
[email protected]
P.K. AGARWAL
Power System Operation
Corporation/NLDC, India
[email protected]
HARISH RATHOUR
Power System Operation
Corporation/NLDC, India
[email protected]
Presented by – P.K.Agarwal, AGM, POSOCO,
[email protected]
Outline
• Indian Power System
• Wide Area Monitoring System
• Synchrophasors Pilot Projects.
• Challenges in Up-scaling to National Pilot Project.
• Way forward - URTDSM Scheme
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INDIAN POWER SYSTEM
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Evolution of National Grid
Five Regional Grids
Five Frequencies
Pre – October 1991
October 1991
East and Northeast
synchronized
August 2006
North synchronized
With Central Grid
Future: 2014
One Grid - One Nation
Five Regional Grids
Two Frequencies
Post August 2006
One Frequency
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March 2003
West synchronized
With East & Northeast
4
4
Indian Grid Diversity
REGIONAL
GRIDS
Very low load
High hydro potential
Evacuation problems
NORTHERN
REGION
NORTHEASTERN
REGION
EASTERN
REGION
WESTER
NREGIO
N
SOUTHERN
REGION
Deficit Region
Snow fed – run-of –the –river hydro
Highly weather sensitive load
Adverse weather conditions: Fog & Dust
Storm
Low load
High coal reserves
Pit head base load plants
Industrial load and agricultural load
High load (40% agricultural load)
Monsoon dependent hydro
ALL INDIA INSTALLED CAPACITY
NORTH
:EAST
:SOUTH
:WEST
:NORTH-EAST :TOTAL
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Experience of Upscaling to National Pilot Project
61.3 GW
28.8 GW
56.8 GW
78.7 GW
2.9 GW
:- 228 GW
5
International Connections
Nepal
Bhutan
Over 16 links of 132/33/11 KV
Radial links with Nepal
Net import by Nepal
Tala: 1020 MW
Chukha: 336 MW
Kurichu: 60 MW
Net import by India
Bangladesh
400 KV AC line between
Baharampur(India) and
Bheramara(Bangladesh) with 500 MW
HVDC sub-station at Bheramara
Sri Lanka
Proposed Madurai (India) and
Anuradhapura (Sri-Lanka) through
±500 KV HVDC under sea cable
Maps not to scale
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SYNCHROPHASOR TECHNOLOGY
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Wide Area Monitoring System
• WAMS is a networks of Phasor Measurement Units consist of
–
–
–
–
PMUs synchronised with GPS.
Fast communication channels like FO.
Phasor data concentrator.
Data management and services software.
Data Storage and
Applications
PMU
PMU
Data Storage and
Applications
PDC Input
Streams
PDC
PDC
Output
Streams
Regional
PDC
PDC
Output
Streams
National
PDC
PMU
A Typical Architecture of WAMS
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Time Synchronised and Time Aligned
Phasor Data from WAMS
• Allows us to see dynamics not visible in traditional SCADA
measurement.
• Enables accurate event analysis by precise comparison
• Like traffic cameras monitoring transmission highways.
• Visualize traffic density as well as pattern.
• Improve situational awareness.
• Provide early warning of subtlest beginning of dynamic
interaction.
• Provides root cause analysis of the events.
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SCADA vs WAMS
Features
SCADA/EMS
WAMS
Advantages
Data Periodicity
& Measurement
4-10 seconds
40 milisecond
Unsynchronized Synchronized
Accurate System
representation for pin pointed
problems detection
Angle
Measurement
Not possible
Possible
Improved Power Flow for
maintaining automatic
Load/Generation balance
Oscillation
Monitoring
Not possible
Possible
Power System Oscillations
damping by improved tuning
to achieve greater Grid
Stability
Post fault
analysis
Not in Real
Time
Possible in
Real Time.
Accurate & Fast Fault Analysis
for suitable remedial actions
Dynamic
behavior of the
System
Not possible
Possible
Corrective measures possible
to achieve greater Grid
Stability
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SYNCHROPHASORS PILOT
PROJECTS
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First PMU Pilot Project
•
•
First PLU Pilot Project in India was implemented in by Powergrid/POSOCO in
Northern Region.
Project was having 1 PDC and 4 PMUs. Later more added. Now 14 Nos. in NR.
Time Line:
Dates
Milestones
June 2009
Management approval
Sep 2009
Floating of Tender
Oct 2009
Vetting of technical
specification
Dec 2009
Approval by CERC
Jan 2010
Award of Contract
May 2010
Commissioning
Concept to Commissioning : Within one Year
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PMU Locations:
a) Separated
by
large
geographical distance
b) Monitoring the Network
Stability
c) Near
big
generating
stations / critical nodes
d) Broad
band
communication link with
the control centre
e) Relative Importance from
present
topology
and
prospective augmentation
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System Architecture of NR
Pilot Project
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PMU Project Equipment
1. Phasor Data Concentrator
2. Data Historian
3. LAN equipments
4. Operator Console.
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1. Global Positioning System
2. Phasor Measurement Unit.
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Displays available at the operator
console for visualization
Display for absolute frequency
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Display for frequency difference
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Other Pilot projects being undertaken by
other RLDCs
All PMU Locations
SN
Northern Region
Southern
Region
1
Agra
Gajuwaka
Asoj
2
3
4
Bassi
Dadri HVDC
Hissar
Gooty
Kolar
Narendra
Bhadravati
Bina (MP)
Boisar
5
Kanpur
Ramagundam
Dehgam
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Moga
HVDC Vindhychal,
Kishenpur
Meerut
Balia
Rihand
Bawana
Karcham Wangtoo
HEP
Mahendragarh
Somanhalli
Sriperumbdur
Thrissur
Tirunelveli
Vijaywada
Itarsi
Jabalpur
Kalwa
Korba
Raipur
Rgppl
Satna
13
14
15
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Eastern
Region
Western Region
Biharsharif
f
Binaguri
Durgapur
Farakka
Jamshedp
ur
Jeypore
Patna
Ranchi
Rengali
Rourkela
Sasaram
Talcher
North Eastern
Region
Agratala
Badarpur
Balipara
Bongoigaon
Imphal
Misa
Nehu
Sarusajai
Solapur
Vindhyachal (WR)
Mundra APL
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All Loactions of PMUs Pilot Projects
Total no of PMUs - 59 Nos.
(including 3 nos. PMU installed
by IPPs)
Region wise PMUs:
NR - 14 Nos
WR - 15 Nos
ER - 12 Nos
SR - 10 Nos
NER – 08 Nos
At present data from 44 PMUs
are available at NLDC PDC.
In addition to above data from
4 PMUs installed as demo
project is also available
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National Synchrophasors Pilot Project
Architecture
NLDC
PDC
Console
Historian
Router
14 PMUs
PDC/Console
NR
PDC/Console
10 PMUs
SR
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PDC/Console
12 PMUs
ER
PDC/Console
15 PMUs
WR
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8 PMUs
PDC/Console
NER
18
Improved Visualisation
CHALLENGES IN UP-SCALING TO
NATIONAL PILOT PROJECT
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Communication channels
• Non-availability
of
communication
links/channels:
• PMU locations and regional control
centers.
• Regional control centers to National
Control center.
• Location of some of the PMUs have to be
shifted.
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Availability space for GPS
antenna
• Some places due to limitation of cable
length of GPS antenna.
• Due to unavailability of clearest possible
view of the sky.
• GPS sometimes goes ‘out of sync’ in bad
weather conditions.
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Non availability of signals from
protection core
• PMUs needs accurate measurement of current and
voltage signals as input
• Ideally input should be provided from protection
core of the current transformer (CT).
• Non-availability of protection core or restriction of
burden on protection core.
• Inputs to PMUs have to be provided from CT’s
metering core.
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Issues with substations with
automation system
• Issue of providing CT/PT connections to PMUs came
up.
• physical connection from CT/PT are available only in
bay control units (BCU) installed in switch yard area.
• PMU requires main input from bus PT, they were
installed in BCU having bus signals.
• CTs for feeders were available in different BCUs.
Hence, at such places line current could not be wired
to PMUs.
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Communication connectors
• Mismatch between different types of connectors used for
termination of communication cables.
• different types of connectors-due to difference of
rating/resistance/make and communication equipment of
different technologies was a tedious task to resolve.
• Present communication system was installed under ULDC
scheme in year 2000 - PDH technology - channels are
separated by using hardware which uses G703 interface.
• Present equipment used for networking system uses Ethernet
interface.
• Converters from G.703 to Ethernet were used.
• These converters require external power supply.
• became a week point due to need of external power supply..
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Storage of data
• Storage at Regional PDC vs at National PDC.
• National project, number of PMUs were large,
increased data storage capacity have to be
provided.
• Using of internal hard drives of servers for data
storage was not feasible.
• storage area network (SAN) system has been
used for providing the high capacity of hard disk
capacity required for the data historian.
• SAN also provided the scalability of storage
capacity required in future.
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Configuration of parameters
• Parameters matching of regional PDC with that of
national PDC were the tedious task.
• Regional PDCs are of different make, they were
having OEM supplied configuration utilities
• matching of their configuration parameters were not
straight forward task.
• open source PMU connection tester was used for
establishing the communication availability than
parameters were easy to match.
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WAY FORWARD - URTDSM
SCHEME
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Unified Real Time Dynamic State Measurement
(URTDSM) Project
PROJECT ENVISAGES:
• Installation of around 1750 PMU’s throughout the Grid in 2 phases at:
– All 400 kV stations in State and ISTS grids
– All generating stations at 220 kV and above
– HVDC terminals and inter-regional and inter-national tie lines
– Both ends of 400kV and above transmission lines at State and ISTS
sector
• 32 PDCs located at SLDCs, RLDCs and NLDCs.
• Transmission of PMU data over fiber optic communication network
• Development of software analytics
• 30% of the PMUs to be supplied to be manufactured indigenously.
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URTDSM System – Data Flow Hierarchy
Super PDC
at Back up NLDC
Super PDC
at NLDC
Remote Consoles
to share data for planning &
Research
Super PDCs at five RLDCs
Master PDCs at SLDCs
Router
PMU 1
Router
PMUn
PMUs located at State
Sector Substations
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PMU 1
Router
PMUn
PMUs located at IPPs
across the Grid
PMU 1
PMUn
PMUs located at Central
Sector Substations
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Analytics Development
Real time
State monitoring
Online Vulnerability
Analysis
of Distance Relays
Validation of network
parameters
Online Instrument
Transformer
validation
Model Validation
Validate and improve
accuracy
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Synchrophasor
based
State Estimation
Post-mortem
analysis
PMU supervised
tripping
of Zone-3
Voltage
Stability Assessment
Frequency Stability
assessment
and control
Angular stability
assessment
and control
Necessary
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Additional benefits 31
31
Thanks for your
attention
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