Chapter 2 & 3: States of Matter

Report
Chapter 2 & 3: States of
Matter
I can explain the relationship between matter, atoms, and elements
I can distinguish between elements and compounds
I can write chemical formulas
I can distinguish between pure substances and mixtures
I can identify chemical and physical properties
I can compare and contrast physical changes and chemical changes
I can describe four common states of matter
I can list the different changes of state of matter
I can state the law of conservation of mass and conservation of energy
I can explain how gases differ from solids and liquids
I can describe what density is and how to calculate density using an equation
or graph
CHAPTER 2, SECTIONS 1-3
Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and
occupies space
Matter: Everything is Made of!
There are two types of matter:
• 1. Pure Substances
Elements
Compounds
• 2. Mixtures
Homogeneous (same all the way throughout)
Heterogeneous (different throughout)
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space!
Pure substances
(can not be broken into
simpler compounds and still
maintain the same
properties)
All pure substances are
homogeneous
Elements
Compounds
(1 – simple)
(2 or more)
Examples:
Silver
Gold
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Carbon
Examples:
Salt: NaCl
Carbon
dioxide
Water
MgBr2
Mixtures
(made of two or more
substances that can easily be
separated)
Homogeneous
Heterogeneous
(same throughout)
(not same throughout)
Examples:
Kool-Aid
Coffee
Salt water
The air we breathe
Hershey bar
Examples:
Hershey bar
(with almonds)
Pizza
Vegetable soup
Salad
Blood
Classify the Following Examples as
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous:
• Hershey Bar?Homogeneous
______________________
• Snickers Bar?Heterogeneous
______________________
• Pizza? Heterogeneous
____________________________
• Italian Dressing?
Heterogeneous
___________________
• Hot Chocolate?
Homogeneous
____________________
Properties of Matter
Used to describe or identify matter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Color
Shape
Texture
Size
Melting point
Boiling point
Malleability
Density
Density
A measurement of how much matter is in a
certain volume of a substance
• Low density = “light”
• High density = “heavy”
Determines if an object will sink or float
Density = Mass / Volume
Practice Problem #1
(density = mass/volume)
List items which will
float on the
particular sample of
ice from the
previous problem:
• ____________
Air
• ____________
Wood
Methanol
• ____________
Chemical Properties
Used to describe how matter reacts
•
•
•
•
•
Flammability
Toxicity
Heat of combustion
Oxidation state(s)
Half-Life
Chemical Change
vs.
Physical Change
Chemical Change: A change that
occurs to produce new substances
(cannot be reversed)
Physical Change: a change that does
not produce a new substance
(can be reversed)
Color Change
Tearing
Production of Heat/Light
Cutting
Formation of precipitate
Folding
Formation of a gas
Painting
Example: rust
Melting
Example: baking
Freezing
Example: food digestion
Boiling
Example: rotting
Dissolving
Example: leaves changing color
Example: ice cube melting
Classify the Following Examples as
Physical or Chemical Change:
• Tearing paper?
Physical
____________________
• Boiling Water?
Physical
____________________
• Making Kool-Aid?
__________________
Physical
• Teeth Rotting?
___________________
Chemical
Ways to Separate a Mixture
 Stir with a magnet to separate magnetic
from nonmagnetic materials
 A centrifuge is a device that separates
solid from a liquid by spinning tubes in
a circle like a washing machine spins.
The solid particles settle to the bottom
of the tube.
 Filtration is the removal of a solid
from a liquid by the liquid passing
through the pores of the filter paper,
and the paper trapping the solid.
CHAPTER 3, SECTION 1
Matter Changes by Adding or
Removing Energy (aka heat)
Matter Can NEVER be Created or
Destroyed
Law of Conservation of Mass
• States that matter can be changed from one form
into another, but the total amount of mass
remains constant

similar documents