Graphs and Charts

Report
Name: ………………………………………………………… Class:……………… Teacher:…………………………………………..
Introduction to Graphs and Charts
Statistics are part of our everyday lives; from stocks and shares to
government spending and sports league tables. Such information,
when written, would be complex and difficult to understand.
By representing statistics in a graph or chart makes the information
much quicker and easier to understand and interpret.
This makes it the most efficient way to display statistical analysis.
There are many ways in which we can
record statistical information, for
example:
•Bar Charts
•Pie Charts
•Line Graphs
•Pictograms
•Tables
Types of Graphs and Charts
Bar Charts (or Histograms)
A Bar Chart uses either horizontal or vertical
bars to show comparisons among categories.
One axis of the chart shows the specific
categories being compared, and the other axis
represents the units. The "bars" should be of
the same width and for clarity and where
possible, should be kept separate.
Pie Charts
These charts are used to compare relative
values of the statistic as a percentage.
Pie charts show a circle cut into wedges,
each wedge being proportionate to the
relevant percentage value.
Task 1 –
Reading Graphs and Charts
1.
This pie chart shows the results of a survey that was carried out
to find out how students travel to school.
a)
What is the most common method of travel?
…………………..
b)
What fraction of the students travel to school by car?
…………………..
c)
If 6 students travel by car, how many people took part
in the survey?
…………………..
(3)
2.
Leon conducts a survey to find the number of
people in each of the cars arriving at his school
gate between 8.30am and 9.00am. His results
are shown in the bar chart on the left:
a)
How many cars contained
1 person?
………………………
b)
How many cars contained
more than 3 people?
……………………….
c)
Why are there only a small
number of cars containing
1 person?
……………………….
(3)
Types of Graphs and Charts
Pictograms
These are special kinds of bar charts
(or graphs). Values or sizes are
represented by symbols, figures or
pictures related to the information
being conveyed. These symbols,
figures or pictures should be uniform
in size and evenly spaced on the graph.
Line Graphs
A line graph is a useful way to displaying data
or information that changes continuously over a
period of time. Different scales are added to
the X axis and the Y axis and a series of points
are plotted (and joined with a line) to show a
change in trends.
Task 2 –
Reading Graphs and Charts
3. This line graph shows the midday
temperature over a period of 7 days.
a) What was the lowest temperature and on
what day did it occur?
………………………………………………
b) On what day was the midday temperature
26°C?
………………………………………………
(2)
4. This pictogram shows the number of pizzas eaten by
four friends in the past month:
a) Who ate the most pizzas?
………………………………………….
b) How many pizzas did Bob eat? ………………………………………….
c) What was the total number of pizzas
eaten by the four friends?
………………………………………….
(3)
Types of Graphs and Charts
Gantt Charts
Gantt charts show the
different tasks involved in
making a product. They are
used for complex planning
where different tasks can be
done at the same time, or
where two or more people are
working on the same project.
Task 3 –
1.
Creating a Gantt Chart
Using the Gantt chart above, answer the following questions;
a) What process takes place during week 2 and week 3?
……………………………
(1)
b) What process are Hina and James doing during week 4?
……………………………
(1)
c) Who is responsible for printing the final version?
……………………………
(1)
d) What 3 tasks are they all involved in?
……………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………….. (3)
Task 4 –
Creating a Graphs and Charts
A group of 60 S4 pupils were asked what there favourite colour was. The results are shown below:
Colour
Talley
Number
Red
Blue
Yellow
Violet
Green
Orange
Using the results above and the grid
provided opposite, complete the following
tasks:
a) Label the X and Y axis
(2)
a) Input the data on the grid to
create a bar graph
(6)
Task 5 –
Creating a Graphs and Charts
A Craft, Design and Technology department at a local school decides to analyse their pupils exam results during a
10 year period. The results, shown below, show the number of pupils who achieved a grade A, B, C or D in Graphic
communication:
A
B
C
D
2012
19
15
6
1
2011
18
15
4
1
2010
17
14
3
2
2009
17
13
2
3
2008
16
15
3
0
2007
14
11
3
1
2006
15
12
4
2
2005
13
9
3
1
2004
14
8
5
3
2003
12
8
6
2
No. of pupils
Year Group
No. of pupils achieving grades A-D
Using the results above and the grid provided
opposite, complete the following tasks:
a) Label the X and Y axis
(2)
b) Input the data on the grid to
create a line graph (you may require colour
pencils to show the different grades)
(4)
Year Group
Designing your Display
Step 1:
You must decide which topic you want to research and present.
Some ideas are shown below to help you choose an idea.
Favourite Soft
Drinks
Favourite Karaoke
Songs
Step 2:
Decide which type of
graph or chart would best
suit the information you
want to display. You could
create some thumbnail
sketches to help you
decide. Also, consider
what information could be
represented on the
X-axis and the Y-axis.
Favourite Fresh
Fruits
Favourite Breakfast
Cereals
Favourite Mobile
Phone
Step 3:
Create a ‘Survey Statement’
describing what research has
been carried out, how many
people have taken part etc.
This information should
appear somewhere on the
finished presentation.
Favourite Soap
Opera
Eg,
A class of 20 Third
year pupils were asked
the question
“What is your
favourite action film?”
The results are shown
opposite
Designing your Display
Step 4:
After carrying out your research, you should produce a range of
thumbnail sketches to help you create the perfect layout to display
your statistical information.
Remember to include the following information
on your presentation:
To help create a good display, consider how you
could use or include the following aspects:
• A heading/title eg, Favourite
•
Colour selections
•
Backgrounds and flashbars
• A sub heading eg, Action films
•
Selection of fonts and size of text
• A survey statement
•
Balance of the page
• Your graph/chart
•
Additional images
Movies
• Units should be included to show
how the information is being
measured in eg, number of people
or sales figures in £’s
Assignment
Brief:
The clients who asked you to design the Table Talker
have asked you to create a statistical display for their
new advertising campaign. This display will be published in
local newspapers and online via their website and social
networking pages. Your display must be clear, relevant
and have good visual impact.
Things to consider:
Most popular
day of the
week to eat
out
•What type of café/restaurant are you commissioned by?
- this may have an influence on your display.
•What is your target audience?
- are you designing this display for teenagers or
pensioners etc
Most popular
drink
•What information are you displaying?
- what is the best way to display the information,
ie, bar chart, line graph etc
•What units will you use?
- time, number of people etc
You will be completing your display on Serif Draw Plus
Comparisons
between
local
competitors
Most popular
Dish
Preliminary Sketches & Recording Information
Preliminary Sketches & Recording Information
Preliminary Sketches & Recording Information
Evaluation
Complete the table below by rating your work in terms of the criteria listed in the original brief;
clarity, relevance and visual impact. Circle the mark you think best suits each heading using the grading
system below.
1: Unsatisfactory
2: Poor
3:Satisfactory
Self Evaluation
4:Good
5: Excellent
Peer Evaluation
Teacher Evaluation
Clarity
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Relevance
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Visual Impact
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Answer the following question:
In which areas of this task were you successful?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Which areas of the task could you improve on?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Homework Booklet
Exercise
Due
Mark
Ex 1:
/5
Ex 2:
/5
Interpreting Data
Interpreting Data
Teacher Feedback
Parental
Signature
Name: ……………………………………………………………….……………… Class:……………………… Teacher:………………………………………………………………
Homework Ex1 –
1.
Interpreting data
A super market chain sold 3600 packets of sausages last month.
The pie chart shows the different flavors.
a)
How many packets of vegetarian sausages were sold?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
b)
How many packets of beef sausages were sold?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
2.
This bar chart shows the heights of 200 people.
a)
How many people were between 140-150cm?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
b)
How many people were over 150cm tall?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
c)
How many people were below 130cm tall?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
Homework Ex2 –
Interpreting data
1.
The S4 pupils at a school were asked to state what their favorite fruit smoothie was, the results
are shown in the pictogram below.
a)
What was the most popular type of smoothie?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
b)
How many pupils preferred the pineapple smoothies?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
c)
Were bananas or apples more popular?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
d)
What fruit was voted for by 10 pupils?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
e)
How many pupils took part in the survey?
Answer: ………………………………………………… (1)
Apple
Strawberry
Pineapple
Banana
Kiwi
Each
full
piece
of
fruit
represents
4 pupils
choosing
their
favourite
smoothie.
BE INSPIRED . . .

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