US$ 50 Billion, including

Report
Ingula Pumped Storage Project
&
Spirit of Ireland Project
Sam Mottram – Manager Power Services
8 November 2010
Outline
• Ingula 1,334 MW Pumped Storage
–
–
–
–
South Africa
ESKOM (SA Public Utility)
Environmental & Socio-Economic
Design, Costs, Construction
• Something New : Spirit of Ireland Project
• Why consider Pumped Storage in BC?
2
Ingula Pumped Storage
By Sam Mottram
November, 2010
3
South Africa
4
South Africa
• Population
of 46 million
• Size approximately = BC and Alberta combined
• 11 Official Languages (English = business language)
• Democracy since 1994
• 9 Provinces
• Home of Nelson Mandela and the Vuvuzela
5
ESKOM
• ESKOM is the SA public utility that is about 4 times the size
of BC Hydro
•
ESKOM supplies approximately 45% of all Power in Africa
(45,000 MW)
•
SA base load is supplied by Coal Generation
•
Other sources include:
• Nuclear 1,800 MW
• Hydro 600 MW
• Pumped Storage 1,400 MW
•
Requires additional 40,000 MW by 2025
6
ESKOM – 5-Year Capital Plan
•
•
•
US$ 50 Billion, including:
Power Generation:
• Return to service
3,720 MW
• Open cycle gas turbine
2,084 MW
• Ingula Pumped Storage
1,334 MW
• Medupi Coal-Fire Station
4,764 MW
• Kusile Clean Coal-Fire
4,800 MW
Transmission:
• 765 kV Lines 8,122km
• 400 kV Lines 7,768 km
• 275 kV Lines 310 km
• 132 kV Lines 293 km
7
ESKOM – 5-Year Capital Plan
• Financing the US$ 50 Billion Plan:
• Eskom & Government Reserves
• Privatization and Sale of some of Eskom
Assets
• Shortfall met by World Bank Loan
• Increasing Electricity Rates at 25% per year
over a 3 year period (i.e. 95% increase in
rates!).
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Pumped Storage Project Layout
9
Ingula Pumped Storage - RSA
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•
1,334 MW Pumped Storage – Daily Peaking
Drakensberg Mountains (Kwa-Zulu Natal)
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Ingula Pumped Storage - RSA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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1,334 MW (4 x 333 MW reversible pump turbines)
480 m Gross Head, 450m Net Head
Generating Flow = 348 m3/s
Pumping Flow = 241 m3/s
Lower Reservoir
• RCC Dam (Braamhoek Dam = 39m high)
Upper Reservoir
• CFRD Dam (Bedford Dam = 41m high)
Underground Powerhouse (150 m x 45 m x 25m)
Main Access Tunnels (9m x 9m x 1,250m)
Headrace Tunnels/Penstocks (2km)
Tailrace Tunnels (2.5km)
11
Ingula – Project Layout
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Ingula – Project Section
13
Ingula Underground Works
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Ingula – Permitting & Environmental
•
•
90 different sites were assessed, before Ingula was
selected
Sediment control
•
•
Bark stripping of indigenous plants for medicinal use
•
•
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Baseline monitoring sites, Sediment management plans
There is a threat of illicit medicinal plant harvesting across South
Africa. Policing, fines, medicinal plant nurseries, etc
Feasibility study underway to designate some of the areas around
Ingula as nature reserves. This has been done at many dam sites
in South Africa.
Access roads, camps, borrow areas and spoil areas
•
Location, Traffic management, Borrow areas located with
reservoirs, etc
15
Ingula – Permitting & Environmental
•
Red-listed species in wetland surrounding upper
reservoir (Critically endangered) – White-winged
Flufftail.
•
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Location of reservoir – moved 1km away from where bird is
usually found.
Diverting wetland water around reservoir.
Keeping construction activities and staff off wetland areas.
Education programs and workshops
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Ingula – Access Roads
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Ingula – Upper Reservoir (CFRD)
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Ingula – Upper Reservoir (CFRD)
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Ingula – Intake Tower & Surge Shaft
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Ingula – Access Tunnel
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Ingula – Underground Works
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Ingula – Underground Works
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Ingula – Underground Works
Outlet Structure
Surge Shaft
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Ingula – Lower Reservoir (RCC)
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Ingula – Lower Reservoir (RCC)
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Ingula – Project Costs
•
•
Total Estimated Cost = US$2.4 billion
US$1.8 million per MW Installed
•
•
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Dams Contract = US$1,200 million
Pump Turbines = US$200 million
Underground Powerhouse & Waterways = US$800 million
27
Ingula – Development Schedule
•
•
Feb 2005 – Start
Nov 2013 – Scheduled Completion
• Access Roads – Complete
• Upper Reservoir – CFRD: Reached full height
• Lower Reservoir – RCC: Reached full height
• Access Tunnel - Complete
• Underground Works 80% complete
Can it be Built?
YES!
28
Spirit of Ireland Project
Sea Water Pumped Storage Concepts
Wind Power & Pumped Storage Integration
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Overview – Spirit of Ireland
• Understanding of Irish Power Sector
• Salt Water Pumped Storage
• Existing Plants - Japan
• Environmental Issues – Salt Water Related
• Technical Issues – Salt Water Related
• SOI Project:
• 1,000 MW Pumped Storage + 1,800 MW Wind
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Ireland
• Irish Population = 4.3
million
• Total Installed
Capacity = 7,300 MW
• Annual Energy
Demand = 28,000
GWh
31
Irish Grid
• Irish Grid
• 400kV Backbone
between Dublin
and Limerick
• Weak grid on
west cost where
major wind
resource exists
32
Irish Power Sector
• Ireland imports > 90% of its energy requirements
• Wants to become more self-sufficient
• Energy Mix:
• Coal 10.3%
• Peat 4.4%
• Oil 56.4%
• Natural gas 25.3%
• Renewables 2.7%
• Electricity import 1%
33
Spirit of Ireland – PS Hydro & Wind
• Ireland has a huge
wind resource.
• Development of this
resource is
constrained due to
transmission
infrastructure and
shaping capabilities.
34
Spirit of Ireland – PS Hydro & Wind
• Wind Integration in European Union (EU):
• Wind provides about 5% of EU energy
requirements.
• Continues to increase each year.
• Ireland currently > 8%
• Ireland would like to attain 40% by 2020. This can
only be achieved by:
• Major expansion of transmission system,
including interconnection to UK, then EU.
• Storage (i.e. Spirit of Ireland Pumped Storage
Hydro)
35
Spirit of Ireland – PS Hydro & Wind
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•
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1,000 MW PS Hydro (Salt Water)
1,800 MW Wind (18 x 100 MW community owned
wind farms)
7-10 days storage
Future expansion to UK/EU, including additional 1,000
MW PS Hydro sites on Irish west coast
Shaping of EU Renewables
36
Spirit of Ireland – Saltwater PS
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Spirit of Ireland – Saltwater PS
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“Sea-Water Pumped Storage”
Okinawa Yanbaru Power Plant:
• A Seawater Demonstration Project
• Located on Okinawa (Japan)
• A prototype pumped storage plant with:
• a single 30-MW unit
• 136-m net head
• Reversible, variable speed
• 8 hours of generation
Okinawa Seawater Pumped
Storage Plant - Japan
39
“Sea-Water Pumped Storage”
Challenges:
• Leaching of Seawater – Upper Reservoir
• Seawater Spray - Upper Reservoir (Vegetation)
• Adherence of marine organisms
• Corrosion of Turbines/Other materials
• Effects on marine life at Ocean Outlet
Breakwater and Intake of Okinawa
Seawater Pumped Storage Plant Japan
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“Sea-Water Pumped Storage”
Okinawa Seawater Pumped Storage Plant - Japan
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“Sea-Water Pumped Storage”
Lined Upper Reservoir - Okinawa Seawater Pumped
Storage Plant - Japan
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Spirit of Ireland – PS Hydro & Wind
Can it be Built?
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Why consider Pumped Storage in BC
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•
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Peaking Capacity – Close to load centres
Energy Security (line outages, extreme cold, etc)
Alleviate Transmission Constraints, especially if the
Pumped Storage facility is built in:
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May reduce the need for major new transmission to:
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•
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Lower Mainland
Vancouver Island
Lower Mainland
Vancouver Island
Energy Exports, and shaping of additional renewables for
energy exports.
Voltage Regulation.
44
Knight Piésold
Power and Water
Resources
Mining
Environment
45

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