Chapter 6

Report
Chapter 6
Population Growth
and Economic
Development:
Causes,
Consequences, and
Controversies
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The Basic Issue: Population
Growth and Quality of Life

Six major issues:
– Will developing countries be able to improve
levels of living given anticipated population
growth?
– How will developing countries deal with the vast
increases in their labor forces?
– How will higher population growth rates affect
poverty?
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6-2
The Basic Issue: Population
Growth and Quality of Life

Six major issues (cont’d):
– Will developing countries be able to extend the
coverage and improve the quality of health care
and education in the face of rapid population
growth?
– Is there a relationship between poverty and
family size?
– How does affluence in the developed world
affect the ability of developing countries to
provide for their people?
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6-3
A Review of the Numbers: Population
Growth—Past, Present, and Future

World population growth through history
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Table 6.1
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Figure 6.1a
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6-6
Figure 6.1b
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Table 6.2
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6-8
A Review of the Numbers: Population
Growth—Past, Present, and Future


A brief history of human population growth
Structure of the world’s population
– Geographic region
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6-9
Figure 6.2
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6-10
Table 6.3
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6-11
Figure 6.3
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6-12
A Review of the Numbers: Population
Growth—Past, Present, and Future


A brief history of human population growth
Structure of the world’s population
– Geographic region
– Fertility and mortality trends
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6-13
Figure 6.4
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6-14
Table 6.4
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6-15
Table 6.5
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6-16
A Review of the Numbers: Population
Growth—Past, Present, and Future


A brief history of human population growth
Structure of the world’s population
– Geographic region
– Fertility and mortality trends
– Age structure and dependency burdens
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
6-17
A Review of the Numbers: Population
Growth—Past, Present, and Future



A brief history of human population growth
Structure of the world’s population
The hidden momentum of population growth
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6-18
Figure 6.5
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6-19
Figure 6.6
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6-20
The Demographic Transition



Stage I: High birthrates and death rates
Stage II: Continued high birthrates, declining
death rates
Stage III: Falling birthrates and death rates,
eventually stabilizing
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6-21
Figure 6.7
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6-22
Figure 6.8
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6-23
The Causes of High Fertility in Developing
Countries: The Malthusian Model

The Malthusian population trap
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6-24
Figure 6.9
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6-25
The Causes of High Fertility in Developing
Countries: The Malthusian Model


The Malthusian population trap
Criticisms of the Malthusian model
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6-26
Figure 6.10
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6-27
Figure 6.11
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6-28
The Causes of High Fertility in Developing
Countries: The Household Model

The microeconomic household theory of
fertility
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6-29
Demand for Children Equation
Cd  f (Y , Pc, Px, tx), x  1,...,n
Where
Cd is the demand for surviving children
Y is the level of household income
Pc is the “net” price of children
Px is price of all other goods
tx is the tastes for goods relative to children
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6-30
Demand for Children Equation
Cd  f (Y , Pc, Px, tx), x  1,...,n
Under neoclassical conditions, we would expect:
Cd
0
Y
Cd
0
Px
Cd
0
Pc
Cd
0
tx
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6-31
Figure 6.12
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6-32
The Causes of High Fertility in Developing
Countries: The Household Model




The microeconomic household theory of
fertility
The demand for children in developing
countries
Some empirical evidence
Implications for development and fertility
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6-33
The Consequences of High Fertility:
Some Conflicting Opinions





Population growth isn’t a real problem
Overpopulation is a deliberately contrived false
issue
Population growth is a desirable phenomenon
Population growth is a real problem
The empirical argument: the negative
consequences of population growth
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6-34
Goals and Objectives:
Toward a Consensus

Despite the conflicting opinions, there is
some common ground
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6-35
Some Policy Approaches

What can developing countries do?
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Table 6.6
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Some Policy Approaches



What developing countries can do
What the developed countries can do:
resources, population, and the global
environment
How developed countries can assist
developing countries
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6-38
Concepts for Review






Birthrate
Death rate
Demographic
transition
Doubling time
Empowerment of
women
Family-planning
programs
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




Fertility
Hidden momentum of
population growth
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth
Malthusian population
trap
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Concepts for Review (cont’d)






Microeconomic theory
of fertility
Mortality
Natural increase
Net international
migration
Population-poverty
cycle
Population pyramid
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





Positive checks
Preventative checks
Rate of population
increase
Reproductive choice
Total fertility rate
Youth dependency
ratio
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