Report

ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION OF DATA - Process of breaking up the whole study into constituent parts of categories. ANALYSIS of data - To focus the essential features of the study { QUALITATIVE } - Having the same quality or kind { QUANTITATIVE } - Grouped according to their quantity -example: grouped into ages of 10-14, 15-19, etc. { GEOGRAPHICAL } - Classified according to their location -example: schools may be grouped by their district or division { CHRONOLOGICAL - Classified according to the order of their occurrence -example: classified according to school years ‘01-’02, ‘02-’03, etc. } { STATISTICAL ANALYSIS } Descriptive Statistics: - Measures of central tendency, measures of variability - Frequency distribution Inferential Statistics: -Probability, hypothesis testing, statistical significance - organizing data into logical, sequential and meaningful categories for study and interpretation. PRESENTATION - Intelligible and of data interpretable TEXTUAL TABULAR GRAPHICAL TEXTUAL Uses statements with numerals or number to describe data. Focus to important data Supplement tabular presentation DISADVATAGES: o Boring to read, especially if long oReader may skip statements TABULAR Systematic arrangement of related data. Rows and columns present the relationship of numerical facts Facilitate study and interpretation Advantages o Concise o easily read and compared Important Parts of Tables and Graphs: 1. Table/Graph Number - Used for reference purposes, preferably in Arabic 2. Title - The subject matter that the table deals with 3. Prefatory note - Explains unclear items in the table 3.Footnote -Explain, clarifies or qualifies some items in the table 4. Source note - The origin or source. Not necessary if the sources of the data are the respondents to a questionnaire or interview. GRAPHICAL May be in pictorial or diagrammatic form. Advantages: A chart representing o Attracts more the quantitative Disadvantages: attention, less likely changes of a variable. to be overlooked May beas in accurate comparison o Not as o Comprehensive withtables other variables view of quantitative o Require more skill data and time and Most attractive o Grasp essential facts appealing way to quickly. present data TYPES OF GRAPHS 1. Bar Graphs a. Single Vertical Bar Graph b. Single Horizontal c. Grouped bar Graph d. Duo-directional e. Component Bar Graph f. Histogram TYPES OF GRAPHS 2. Linear Graphs a. Time Series or Chronological line chart b. Composite Line Chart c. Frequency Polygon d. Ogive e. Band Chart TYPES OF GRAPHS 3. Hundred percent Graphs or charts a. Subdivided bar b. Circle or Pie Graph 4. Pictograms BAR GRAPHS a. Single Vertical Bar Graph Bars are constructed vertically Bars portray the magnitudes of the categories Usually used to depict time series data BAR GRAPHS a. Single Vertical Bar Graph No. of students 700 600 500 400 No. of students 300 200 100 0 1985-19861986-19871987-19881988-1989 BAR GRAPHS b. Single Horizontal Bar Graph Bars are constructed Horizontally Usually used to compare magnitudes of different categories BAR GRAPHS b. Single Horizontal Bar Graph Series 1 I III Series 1 III IV 0 50 100 150 200 250 BAR GRAPHS c. Grouped Bar Graph Used to compare two or more categories of a variable during a specific period of time Subgroups of the categories have common attributes BAR GRAPHS c. Grouped Bar Graph 6 5 4 Site 1 3 Site 2 Site 3 2 1 0 Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4 BAR GRAPHS d. Bilateral Bar Graph Present data in forms of assets, profits and positive numbers, liabilities, losses and negative numbers Presence of positive and negative values BAR GRAPHS d. Bi-lateral Bar Graph BAR GRAPHS e. Component Bar Graph Shows variation or changes of the components parts of a whole and the whole itself BAR GRAPHS f. Histogram Bars placed side by side, heights indicate the magnitudes of their classes For grouped or class frequency distributions BAR GRAPHS f. Histogram LINE GRAPHS A. Time series linear chart Depict variations of a variable over a period of time LINE GRAPHS B. Time series composite charts comparisons made between or among two or more categories LINE GRAPHS B. Time series composite charts Number of clinicians 6 5 4 Clinic 1 3 Clinic 2 2 Clinic 3 1 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 LINE GRAPHS C. Frequency Polygon Graph class or grouped frequency distribution Counterpart of histogram Connecting the midpoints of the classes LINE GRAPHS C. Frequency Polygon LINE GRAPHS D. Ogive Graph of the cumulative frequencies Either upward or downward LINE GRAPHS D. Ogive LINE GRAPHS E. Band Chart Proportional variations of the component parts of a whole over a period of time ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS a. 100% bar graph or rectangular chart Division of a 100% graph where the parts are divided per segment Largest segment at the bottom ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS b. Pie chart or Circle Graph Equated to 100% 1% of the graph is equated to 3.6 degrees ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS b. Pie chart or Circle Graph Factors why 4th year students enrolled in their GIFT High GIFT grade 3% Parents chose for them 2% Their friends are there 8% Finds it interesting 31% Develops skills & talents 56% PICTOGRAMS Portray data by means of pictures or symbols. Vivid comparison of magnitude PICTOGRAMS USE THE RIGHT TYPE OF GRAPHIC!! Vertical Portray magnitude Horizontal Compare magnitude Grouped Compare categories Bilateral Positive negative values Component Proportions of a whole Histogram Frequency distribution Time series Time period Composite line Different categories - Display trends over time Frequency polygon Frequency distribution Ogive Cumulative frequency Band Chart Components of a whole 100% GRAPHS - Show percentages and proportion PICTOGRAMS Rectangular bar graph Proportions of a 100% Pie Graph Proportion of a 100% BAR GRAPH -Comparison -Categories of data LINE GRAPH Pictorial display of data - Discuss the summary of the implications of the findings INTERPRETATION of data - Possible meaning, probable causes and effects, suggestions to a situation or condition from the findings. -Adding meaning to information by making connections and comparisons Condition or situation Probable cause Suggestion or recommendatio n Entity or area affected Probable effect Are there any outliers or discrepancies in the data? A significant finding discovered in the research May be favorable or unfavorable A generalization formed from the findings EXISTENCE OF A CONDITION - A logical and valid relationship between the condition and the cause. - Causes may be inferred from other researches and studies PROBABLE CAUSE OF CONDITION - Logical and valid relationship between the condition and its possible effects - May be good or bad PROBABLE EFFECT OF CONDITION • Possible solutions to remedy the unsatisfactory condition. • Suggest to continue practice and to strengthen it. SUGGESTION OR RECOMMENDATION - Who or what will be affected by the possible effects brought by the conditions / situations in the findings of the study? AREA OR ENTITY AFFECTED High Factors why 4th year students enrolled in GIFT Their friends their GIFT grade 3% are there 8% Parents chose for them 2% Finds it interesting 31% Develops skills & talents 56% 1. CONDITION - 56% of the sample select their GIFT class to develop their talents and skill 2. CAUSES -The students were given enough orientation about the program - Students intend to develop their skills 3. EFFECTS - By the end of the program, the students would have enhanced their skills 4. SUGGESTION - Continue the implementation of the program 5. AFFECTED -SPCP students who are enrolled in GIFT GROUP ACTIVITY!! 1. What are the 3 general ways of presenting data? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? 2. Construct a graph for this data: Enrolment of High School Student, 1990-1991 Year Level I II III IV Boys 124 115 109 98 Girls 141 139 128 115 3. Why did you choose to use this graph 4. What are the similarities and differences of the ff: frequency polygon, histogram and ogives? 5. Give a 3-7 sentence interpretation of the data from # 2