### Bar Graphs

```ANALYSIS,
PRESENTATION,
INTERPRETATION
OF DATA
- Process of breaking
up the whole study
into constituent
parts of categories.
ANALYSIS
of data
- To focus the
essential features
of the study
{
QUALITATIVE
}
- Having the same
quality or kind
{
QUANTITATIVE
}
- Grouped according to
their quantity
-example: grouped into ages
of 10-14, 15-19, etc.
{
GEOGRAPHICAL
}
- Classified according to
their location
-example: schools may be grouped
by their district or division
{
CHRONOLOGICAL
- Classified according to
the order of their
occurrence
-example: classified according to
school years ‘01-’02, ‘02-’03, etc.
}
{
STATISTICAL
ANALYSIS
}
Descriptive Statistics:
- Measures of central tendency, measures
of variability
- Frequency distribution
Inferential Statistics:
-Probability, hypothesis testing, statistical
significance
-
organizing data into
logical, sequential and
meaningful categories
for study and
interpretation.
PRESENTATION - Intelligible and
of data
interpretable
TEXTUAL
TABULAR
GRAPHICAL
TEXTUAL
Uses statements
with numerals or
number to
describe data.
Focus to
important data
Supplement
tabular presentation
especially if long
skip statements
TABULAR
Systematic
arrangement of
related data.
Rows and
columns present
the relationship
of numerical facts
Facilitate study and
interpretation
o Concise
compared
Important Parts of Tables and Graphs:
1. Table/Graph Number
- Used for reference purposes, preferably in Arabic
2. Title
- The subject matter that the table deals with
3. Prefatory note
- Explains unclear items in the table
3.Footnote
-Explain, clarifies or qualifies some items in the table
4. Source note
- The origin or source. Not necessary if the sources of
the data are the respondents to a questionnaire or
interview.
GRAPHICAL
May be in pictorial or
diagrammatic form.
A chart representing
o Attracts more
the quantitative
attention, less likely
changes of a variable.
to be overlooked
May
beas
in accurate
comparison
o Not
as
o Comprehensive
withtables
other variables
view of quantitative
o Require more skill
data
and
time and
Most
attractive
o Grasp essential facts
appealing way to
quickly.
present data
TYPES OF GRAPHS
1. Bar Graphs
a. Single Vertical Bar Graph
b. Single Horizontal
c. Grouped bar Graph
d. Duo-directional
e. Component Bar Graph
f. Histogram
TYPES OF GRAPHS
2. Linear Graphs
a. Time Series or Chronological line chart
b. Composite Line Chart
c. Frequency Polygon
d. Ogive
e. Band Chart
TYPES OF GRAPHS
3. Hundred percent Graphs or charts
a. Subdivided bar
b. Circle or Pie Graph
4. Pictograms
BAR GRAPHS
a. Single Vertical Bar Graph


Bars are constructed vertically
Bars portray the magnitudes of the
categories
 Usually used to depict time series
data
BAR GRAPHS
a. Single Vertical Bar Graph
No. of students
700
600
500
400
No. of students
300
200
100
0
1985-19861986-19871987-19881988-1989
BAR GRAPHS
b. Single Horizontal Bar Graph
 Bars are constructed Horizontally
 Usually used to compare
magnitudes of different categories
BAR GRAPHS
b. Single Horizontal Bar Graph
Series 1
I
III
Series 1
III
IV
0
50
100
150
200
250
BAR GRAPHS
c. Grouped Bar Graph
 Used to compare two or more
categories of a variable during a
specific period of time
 Subgroups of the categories have
common attributes
BAR GRAPHS
c. Grouped Bar Graph
6
5
4
Site 1
3
Site 2
Site 3
2
1
0
Quarter 1
Quarter 2
Quarter 3
Quarter 4
BAR GRAPHS
d. Bilateral Bar Graph


Present data in forms of assets, profits
and positive numbers, liabilities,
losses and negative numbers
Presence of positive and negative
values
BAR
GRAPHS
d. Bi-lateral Bar Graph
BAR GRAPHS
e. Component Bar Graph
 Shows variation or changes of
the components parts of a whole
and the whole itself
BAR GRAPHS
f. Histogram
 Bars placed side by side, heights
indicate the magnitudes of their
classes

For grouped or class frequency
distributions
BAR
GRAPHS
f. Histogram
LINE GRAPHS
A. Time series linear chart
 Depict variations of a variable
over a period of time
LINE GRAPHS
B. Time series composite charts

among two or more categories
LINE
GRAPHS
B. Time series composite charts
Number of clinicians
6
5
4
Clinic 1
3
Clinic 2
2
Clinic 3
1
0
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
LINE GRAPHS
C. Frequency Polygon



Graph class or grouped frequency
distribution
Counterpart of histogram
Connecting the midpoints of the
classes
LINE
GRAPHS
C. Frequency Polygon
LINE GRAPHS
D. Ogive


Graph of the cumulative
frequencies
Either upward or downward
LINE
GRAPHS
D. Ogive
LINE GRAPHS
E. Band Chart

Proportional variations of the
component parts of a whole over
a period of time
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS
a. 100% bar graph or rectangular chart


Division of a 100% graph where the
parts are divided per segment
Largest segment at the bottom
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS
b. Pie chart or Circle Graph
 Equated to 100%
 1% of the graph is equated to
3.6 degrees
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT GRAPHS
b.
Pie chart or Circle Graph
Factors why 4th year students enrolled in their GIFT
3%
Parents chose for them
2%
Their
friends are
there
8%
Finds it interesting
31%
Develops skills & talents
56%
PICTOGRAMS


Portray data by means of pictures
or symbols.
Vivid comparison of magnitude
PICTOGRAMS
USE THE RIGHT TYPE OF GRAPHIC!!
Vertical
Portray magnitude
Horizontal
Compare magnitude
Grouped
Compare categories
Bilateral
Positive negative values
Component
Proportions of a whole
Histogram
Frequency distribution
Time series
Time period
Composite line
Different categories
- Display trends
over time
Frequency polygon
Frequency distribution
Ogive
Cumulative frequency
Band Chart
Components of a whole
100% GRAPHS
- Show percentages
and proportion
PICTOGRAMS
Rectangular bar graph
Proportions of a 100%
Pie Graph
Proportion of a 100%
BAR GRAPH
-Comparison
-Categories of
data
LINE GRAPH
Pictorial display of data
- Discuss the summary
of the implications of
the findings
INTERPRETATION
of data
- Possible meaning,
probable causes and
effects, suggestions
to a situation or
condition from the
findings.
making connections and
comparisons
Condition or
situation
Probable
cause
Suggestion or
recommendatio
n
Entity or area
affected
Probable
effect
 Are there any outliers
or discrepancies in the
data?
 A significant finding
discovered in the
research
 May be favorable or
unfavorable
 A generalization
formed from the
findings
EXISTENCE OF
A CONDITION
- A logical and valid
relationship
between the
condition and the
cause.
- Causes may be
inferred from other
researches and
studies
PROBABLE
CAUSE OF
CONDITION
- Logical and valid
relationship
between the
condition and its
possible effects
- May be good or
PROBABLE
EFFECT OF
CONDITION
• Possible solutions
to remedy the
unsatisfactory
condition.
• Suggest to
continue practice
and to strengthen
it.
SUGGESTION OR
RECOMMENDATION
- Who or what will
be affected by the
possible effects
brought by the
conditions /
situations in the
findings of the
study?
AREA OR
ENTITY
AFFECTED
High
Factors why 4th year students enrolled
in
Their friends
3%
are there
8%
Parents
chose for
them
2%
Finds it
interesting
31%
Develops
skills &
talents
56%
1. CONDITION
- 56% of the sample select their GIFT class to develop
their talents and skill
2. CAUSES
-The students were given enough orientation about the
program
- Students intend to develop their skills
3. EFFECTS
- By the end of the program, the students would have
enhanced their skills
4. SUGGESTION
- Continue the implementation of the program
5. AFFECTED
-SPCP students who are enrolled in GIFT
GROUP ACTIVITY!!
1. What are the 3 general ways of presenting
data? What are the advantages and
2. Construct a graph for this data:
Enrolment of High School Student, 1990-1991
Year Level
I
II
III
IV
Boys
124
115
109
98
Girls
141
139
128
115
3. Why did you choose to use this
graph
4. What are the similarities and
differences of the ff: frequency
polygon, histogram and ogives?
5. Give a 3-7 sentence interpretation
of the data from # 2
```