Characteristics of Living Things

Report
Chapter 1 Notes
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Biology
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The study of life
Living things (organisms) depend upon
other organisms and nonliving things to
maintain life.
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bios = life
logos, ology = study of
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Characteristics of Living
Things
Eight Basic
Characteristics
1. Made up of cells.
2. Reproduce.
3. Living Things are based
on a universal genetic
code (DNA)
4. Grow and Develop.
5. Obtain and Use Energy.
6. Respond to their
environment.
7. Maintain a stable
internal environment.
8. Taken as a group, living
things change over time.
1. Made up of Cells
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All living things have an
orderly structure
(organization)
All are made up of one or
more cells - basic unit of
structure and function in living
things.
Some organisms may be single
celled called Unicellular.
Some may be made up of
many cells and called
Multicellular
2. Reproduce
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1.
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Reproduction is important for the
continuation of individual
species.
Species – a group of organisms
that can interbreed and produce
fertile offspring in nature.
There are two types of
reproduction
Sexual Reproduction- requires
two cells from separate
individuals to unite to produce a
new organism.
Asexual Reproduction - does not
require a cell from another
individual organism. (budding,
fission or mitosis)
3. Living Things are based
on a universal genetic code
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The ability of offspring to
resemble their parents in sexual
and asexual reproduction is
based on a universal genetic
code.
Biologists know that the
directions for inheritance are
carried by a molecule called
deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
DNA provides all the
information to control life
processes.
4. All Living Things Grow and
Develop
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Growth –results in an
increase in the amount of
living material (biomass).
Growing from a embryo to
an adult. (seed- sapling- oak
tree)
Development – is a result of
the changes that take place
during the life of an
organism. ( caterpillar, pupa,
butterfly) (crawl, walk, run)
5. Obtain and Use Energy
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Energy is used to
maintain life - grow,
develop and reproduce.
Plants and plant-like
organisms obtain their
energy from sunlight to
make food in a process
called Photosynthesis.
Other organisms obtain
their energy from food
they eat.
6.Adjust to changes in their
Environment (surroundings)
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Stimulus-anything in the
environment that causes an organism
to react. (light, temperature, odor,
sound, gravity, water & pressure).
Response - Reaction to a stimulus,
can be slow or rapid, depends on
stimulus.
Irritability- The ability of an
organism to react to stimuli and
survive. (structure, behavior, or
internal process) - Adaptation
7. Maintain a stable internal
environment.
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Living things maintain a
stable internal environment
by a process known as
homeostasis
8. Living things change over
time.
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Through evolution living things change over
time. A gradual accumulation of adaptations over
time.
A process by which modern organisms have
descended from ancient organism.

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