the car is steering

Report
AUTOMATED DRIVING PUT NEW
DEMANDS ON DRIVING EVALUATION
METHODS
Camilla Grane
Ph.D. in Engineering Psychology
Luleå University of Technology
SWEDEN
NEW PROJECT
• NES 2012
– Presented a developed method for evaluating driving
performance
– Stas Krupenia representing SCANIA AB (trucks)
asked ”what if the vehicles are autonomous”
• MODAS – Methods for Designing Autonomous
Systems
–
–
–
–
Scania
The Interactive Institute
Uppsala University
Luleå University of Technology
NEW PROJECT
• NES 2012
– Presented a developed method for evaluating driving
performance
– Stas Krupenia representing SCANIA AB (trucks)
asked ”what if the vehicles are autonomous”
• MODAS – Methods for Designing Autonomous
Systems
–
–
–
–
Scania
The Interactive Institute
Uppsala University
Luleå University of Technology
LEVELS OF AUTOMATED DRIVING
• Assisting features
– Cruise control
– ABS-breaking
–…
• Semi-autonomous driving
– The car direct or take over action when needed
• Autonomous driving
– The car is capable of sensing its environment and
navigating without human input
“THE SELF-DRIVING CAR IS LESS THAN
A DECADE AWAY”
• Alan Taub, vice president of Global Research and Development at
General Motors, www.autoguide.com
GM, www.AUTOGUIDE.com
MEANING, KITT WILL BECAME REALITY
• Autonomous car in Knight Rider, 1982
ALREADY HISTORY (AS DEMO CARS)
• 1926: Achen Motor demonstrated the radio-controlled "phantom
motor car" at the streets of Milwaukee
• …
• 1960: RCA Corporation demonstrated a driverless car which drove
on an "electronic highway" – a road with electronics built into the
asphalt that could determine the presence and velocity of any
metallic vehicle on its surface.
• …
• 2001: the US Government demonstrated the ability of unmanned
ground vehicles to navigate miles of difficult off-road terrain,
avoiding obstacles such as rocks and trees.
• …
• Today there are several autonomous demonstration cars
ONE EXAMPLE…
BMW 5-series CDC ConnectedDrive Connect
www.BMWCOOP.com
THE FUTURE IS CLOSE
THE FUTURE IS CLOSE
The 2014 Mercedes S-Class will have
the option of autonomous steering,
breaking, lane guidance, accident
avoidance, and driver fatigue detection
THE FUTURE IS CLOSE
The 2014 Mercedes S-Class will have
the option of autonomous steering,
breaking, lane guidance, accident
avoidance, and driver fatigue detection
By 2020 Volvo expects accident-freecars and ”road trains” in which individual
cars are electronically guided by a driver
in a lead vehicle
THE GOALS WITH AUTOMATED DRIVING
• Increase driving safety
• Increase environmental savings
• And to make it alright to send that SMS…
NEGATIVE EFFECTS UNKNOWN
• New systems designed to support and help
could also cause problems
– Cruise-control make drivers passive and affect their
break reaktion time negativelly
• Automation systems will change the role of the
driver from active to passive
– How passive is OK? Is it OK to fall asleep?
How should autonomous systems be evaluated,
what are the possible negative effects???
MEASURING PERFORMANCE
• Evaluation measures used today:
–
–
–
–
Lane keeping
Break reaktion time
Hazard detection
…
MEASURING PERFORMANCE
• Evaluation measures used today:
–
–
–
–
Lane keeping
Break reaktion time
Hazard detection
…
• These measures will become meaningless in the
future
MEASURING PERFORMANCE
• Evaluation measures of today:
–
–
–
–
Lane keeping - the car is steering
Break reaktion time
Hazard detection
…
• These measures will become meaningless in the
future
MEASURING PERFORMANCE
• Evaluation measures of today:
–
–
–
–
Lane keeping - the car is steering
Break reaktion time - the car controlls the breaks
Hazard detection
…
• These measures will become meaningless in the
future
MEASURING PERFORMANCE
• Evaluation measures of today:
–
–
–
–
Lane keeping - the car is steering
Break reaktion time - the car controlls the breaks
Hazard detection - the car detects obstacles
…
• These measures will become meaningless in the
future
OUR CHALLANGE
• Define the new driver role
• Define critical situations
• Develop new test methods
•
•
•
•
•
Situation awareness?
Drowsiness?
Alertness?
Trust?
…
•
•
•
•
Trustworthiness?
Guessability?
Usability?
…
Camilla Grane
CAMILLA GRANE
[email protected]
M.Sc. in Ergonomic Design and Production Engineering
Ph.D. in Engineering Psychology
Department of Human Work Sciences
Luleå University of Technology, LTU
Main interests:
How to improve safety and human-machine-interaction in
vehicles and in the mining industry

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