هنا

Report
Ministry Of Electricity
General Electric company of Libya
The impact of Energy Pricing on Renewable
Energy in Deployment
Country Study : Libya
Prepared by:
Dr. Khairy Agha
Mr. Milad Abdallah Zaed
Gecol Information
GECOL is a state-owned vertically structured power utility
responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of
electric power throughout Libya.
Internal Audit
Operations
Chairman
Corporate Planning,
Finance & Projects
Legal Affairs
Support Services
Generation &
Desalination
Corporate
Planning
General Services
Transmission &
Control
Corporate Finance
Information
Technology
Distribution
Contracts &
Development
Accounts
Accounting
Customer Service
Generation &
Transmission
Projects
Human Resources
Distribution
Projects
Communication &
External
Cooperation
Procurement &
Warehousing
Vice Chairman
General Department
•
Key Figures 2010&2012:
2010
2012
Change
(%)
Max. Load (MW)
5,759
5,981
3.85
Min. Load (MW)
2,103
2,080
-0.1
Total Energy Production- Gwh
32,558
33,980
4.37
Energy Imported- Gwh
70.331
61.020
-13.24
Energy Exported- Gwh
152.152
14.419
-90.52
1,198,176
1,223,727
2.13
Item
Customers
Energy Sold Mwh
Number of Employee
Consumption Per Capita(K.w.h)
Energy Produced )MWH Per
Employee)
Customers Per Employee
20,602,217 12,993,675
-36.93
37,586
40,000
6.0
4,651
4,850
4.37
880
883
0.34
33.14
31.80
-4.0
•
Key Figures 2010&2012:
2010
2012
Change
(%)
400 KV
2,290
2,290
0.0
220 KV
13,706
13,706
0.0
66 KV
14,311
14,311
0.0
30 KV
11,142
11,142
0.0
400 KV
9,600
9,600
0.0
220 KV
15,458
19,006
22.95
66 KV
4,359
4,359
0.0
30 KV
13,884
13,914
0.22
Item
Transmission Lines (KM)
Sub-Stations Installed Capacity
(MVA)
Libya Historical System and Social-economic data
Country
Historical
Data
Population
GDp
10^6
Us$
Total
Capacity
Gw
Total
Generation
Gwh
Technical
Losses
Gwh
Consumption
Gwh
2006
5,913,230
56,479
5,438
22,552
1,752
20,833
2007
6,049,900
71,687
6,612
25,418
1,784
22,341
2008
6,189,040
89,909
6,196
28,666
4,013
22,886
2009
6,332,633
60,351
6,766
30,373
4,259
24,290
2010
6,478,917
76,557
8,349
32,558
4,483
25,407
2011
6,628,580
33,526
8,349
26,349
4,064
19,431
2012
6,781,700
90,519
8,349
33,960
5,356
25,607
Total
Balancing demand with available capacity of existing generation projects and new production
Year
2013
2014
2015
2016
The maximum load expected (MW )
Loads development projects (MW )
Total maximum load (MW )
6,495
137
6,632
6,931
549
7,480
7,381
1,097
8,478
7,846 8,301 8,766 9,222 9,628 10,042 10,453 10,871 11,285 11,668 12,052 12,440 12,832 13,230 13,636 14,049 14,470 14,900
1,982 3,497 3,930 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211 4,211
9,828 11,798 12,696 13,433 13,839 14,253 14,664 15,082 15,496 15,879 16,263 16,651 17,043 17,441 17,847 18,260 18,681 19,111
Power required (MWH )
Station
Existing
Ghazi
steam
Type
west of Tripoli
Komes
Drna
Tobruk
Misrata iron
south of
Tripoli
Azwaitina
Komes
Western
Mountain
Srear
Small Gaz
Steam
Gaz
Gaz
Compien Cycle
proposal
steam
Under
constructio
n
And
contracted
Compien Cycle
Zwia
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
Available capacity (MW )
435
480
130
130
507
4ST
4ST
2ST
2ST
6ST
120
400
80
80
180
120
400
80
80
180
120
400
80
80
180
400
80
80
180
400
40
40
180
400
400
400
180
180
180
120
60
500
5GT
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
200
600
4GT
4GT
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
160
480
936
6GT
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
820
3GT
*GTs
6GT
3ST
4GT
2ST
2GT
1ST
2GT
1ST
2GT
1ST
4ST
690
100
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
690
100
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
700
690
50
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,050
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
810
405
495
245
460
230
460
230
460
230
1,400
700
1,050
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
700
350
1,400
700
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
1,400
1,050
700
1,050
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
350
700
1,050
1,400
700
350
1,400
1,050
700
1,400
1,400
700
1,400
1,400
700
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
1,400
1,400
700
350
690
1,400
1,400
700
700
690
1,400
1,400
700
700
690
1,400
1,400
1,050
700
690
660
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
460
230
1485
945
820
North
Benghazi-2
820
Azwaitina-1
820
Gulf
1400
west of Tripoli
1400 4ST
-2
624
203
4GT
1400 4ST
1050 3ST
1400 4ST
1400
1400
1050
700
855
4ST
2ST
2ST
2ST
3GT
855
3GT
750
2GT
1ST
4GT
2ST
2 GT
1 ST
2 GT
1 ST
Mellita
1640
Azwaitina-1
820
Tobruk
820
230
400
400
200
400
200
920
230
Total available capacity (MW)
7,235
8,368
Deficit "-" or surplus "+" (MW )
603
888
Reserve
2019
Installe
Unit
d
s
Power
Misurata-1
Ubari
2018
38,826,990 43,575,416 49,181,587 56,996,058 68,026,240 73,025,613 77,088,606 79,482,928 81,369,313 83,474,374 85,621,158 87,998,659 89,702,325 94,395,030 96,643,261 99,203,442 101,232,174 103,584,957 103,794,966 103,987,001 104,173,941
North
Benghazi-1
east of Tripoli
Bembh Golf
West of
Benghazi
Abu Kemash
Komas-2
Drna
Abuturabh
Sabha
South of
Tripoli-2
steel
Misurata
2017
400
200
920
460
460
400
200
920
460
460
230
400
200
920
460
460
230
690
400
200
920
460
460
230
9,971 11,751 14,221 15,181 16,111 16,691 17,041 17,641 17,961 18,311 18,661 19,021 19,721 20,071 20,071 20,421 21,001 21,461 21,811
1,493
1,923
2,423
2,485
2,678
2,852
2,788
2,977
2,879
2,815
2,782
2,757
3,070
3,028
2,629
2,574
2,741
2,780
2,699
%9.1 %11.9 %17.6 %19.6 %20.5 %19.6 %19.9 %20.6 %19.6 %20.3 %19.1 %18.2 %17.5 %17.0 %18.4 %17.8 %15.1 %14.4 %15.0 %14.9 %14.1
Libya Fuel Consumption in Electrical Sectors(M3)
Historical
Data
Total
M3
Heavy Fuel
oil M3
Light Fuel
oil M3
Natural Gas
M3
2008
3,326,552,378 1,802,846
3,363,604
3,323,188,774
2009
3,090,197,861 2,034,886
3,862,735
3,084,300,240
2010
3,799,202,552 1,812,930
4,205,111
3,793,184,511
2011
4,269,391,873 1,074,381
2,478,040
4,265,839,452
2012
7,455,054,744 1,420,713
2,577,329
7,451,056,702
Libya Fuel Consumption in Electrical Sectors(000 toe)
Historical
Data
Total
Thousand toe
Heavy Fuel oil
Thousand toe
Light Fuel oil
Thousand toe
Natural Gas
Thousand toe
2006
7,135
1,814
2,613
2,708
2007
7,148
1,418
2,647
3,083
2008
7,583
1,636
3,002
2,945
2009
8,026
1,846
3,447
2,733
2010
8,759
1,645
3,753
3,361
2011
6,969
0,974
2,213
3,782
2012
10,197
1,289
2,302
6,606
Gecol Of Calculation Emissions Factor
EFgrid,OMsimple,y = Operation Margin
(2009-2011)
0.95334
EFgrid,BM,y = Build Margin (2011)
0.79939
EFgrid,CM,y = Combined Margin (2011) (a)
Weighted average (OM x 0.5 + 0.5 x BM)
0.87636
ELECTRICITY TARIFF DEVELOPMENT DURING YEARS 1981-2012
YEAR
1998- 2004- (KWh\month) 2006
1996 1997
2003 2005
2010
20
0-1000
20
25
35
20
1001-1400 30
40
45
Over 1400 50
55
YEARS (Dirham\KWh)
Type of
Class of
Consumption Befor 1981use
(Kwh\month) 1981 1995
0 - 500
501-600
601-700
DOMESTIC
10
701-800
801-900
over 900
Consumption
DOMESTIC. Selling price (after 2010 flat)
SMALL AGRICULTURE
LARGE AGRICULTURE
SMALLINDUSTRIES
LARGEINDUSTRIES
COMMERCIAL
STATE OFFICES
PUBLIC LIGHTING
5
5
15
7
20
20
15
15
15
15
10
30
30
30
20
21
24
17
36
36
35
25
27
33
24
42
42
40
20
30
32
42
31
48
47
45
68
68
68
30
32
42
31
68
68
68
Impacts Change Local Fuel Prices for year 2012
Type of Fuel
2001
HFO
8.4
LFO
26
YEARS (L.D/M3)
20022006
2007
2005
2008
18.4
36
GAS
56
20092012
36
66
86
150
0.008405
Type of
Fuel
Qua. (M3)
year 2012
2001
2002-2005
2006
2007
2008
2009-2012
HFO
LFO
1,420,713
2,577,329
12
67
26
93
26
144
26
170
26
222
51.0
386.5
GAS
7,451,056,782
63
63
63
63
63
62.6
142
359
182
28%
319
233
65%
267
259
83%
242
310
119%
190
500.1
253%
0
Total ) M.LD )
%
Difference
Gecol Balance sheet for year 2008-2011
PERIOD ENDING
31/12/2008
Assets
Current Assets
Cash And Cash Equivalents
26,890,803
Letters of credit
56,549,325
Receivables
1,026,555,328
Provision for doubtful debts
(19,888,728)
Inventory
226,620,320
Other Current Debts
598,482,706
Total Current Assets
1,915,209,754
Property Plant and Equipment
Generation & desalination plants
2,527,508,010
Transmission lines & sub-stations
1,157,206,738
Distribution lines & sub-stations
933,150,047
Land
4,401,087
Building and other constructions
129,297,443
Computers
46,994,313
Transportation vehicles & other motorized equipments 172,349,770
Furniture & office equipments
63,075,626
Equipment & Tools
24,708,619
Other
440,826,858
Total Property Plant and Equipment
5,058,691,653
Projects under construction
171,622,435
Major overhauls
188,807,697
Accumulated Depreciation
Generation & desalination plants
709,135,614
Transmission lines & sub-stations
324,794,236
Distribution lines & sub-stations
234,176,503
Land
Building and other constructions
48,458,144
Computers
28,836,454
Transportation vehicles & other motorized equipments 121,130,230
Furniture & office equipments
38,343,683
Equipment & Tools
22,355,169
Overhauls
84,010,232
Other
343,133,912
Total Accumulated Depreciation
1,611,240,265
Long Term Investments
9,540,199
Deferred Long Term Asset Charges
Total Assets
5,732,631,473
31/12/2009
31/12/2010
31/12/2011
340,357,419
86,685,359
803,886,115
(21,473,020)
255,366,714
787,323,330
2,252,145,917
210,845,692
32,973,944
1,333,237,982
(17,134,268)
299,720,933
893,328,861
2,752,973,144
54,494,868
20,870,202
1,623,669,866
(17,134,268)
317,869,881
892,570,789
2,892,341,338
2,556,120,571
1,766,030,270
956,295,141
4,559,517
143,598,542
49,900,411
183,681,073
68,024,269
26,479,833
476,243,645
5,754,689,627
199,724,757
248,010,900
2,560,498,251
2,058,535,631
979,459,257
4,797,815
174,892,916
52,617,683
205,994,468
75,238,648
30,715,121
544,256,651
6,142,749,790
215,252,305
275,233,789
2,560,498,251
2,061,435,064
995,506,649
4,869,744
185,853,845
53,137,145
225,354,261
76,414,379
31,417,623
577,046,997
6,194,486,961
217,422,511
279,696,794
803,287,834
439,099,045
280,899,522
52,957,718
36,640,884
137,539,612
42,333,516
23,417,077
136,314,080
429,202,887
1,952,489,288
10,840,199
6,512,922,112
898,400,851
533,860,632
328,849,287
59,247,046
44,592,270
155,584,849
46,783,545
24,781,315
208,185,016
539,174,041
2,300,284,811
10,840,199
7,096,764,416
993,316,072
610,859,425
377,219,650
65,157,361
47,452,368
172,815,536
51,668,664
26,458,459
232,507,082
596,059,470
2,577,454,617
10,840,199
7,017,333,186
Gecol Balance sheet for year 2008-2011
PERIOD ENDING
Liabilities
Bank overdrafts
Accounts Payable
Short term loans
Movable stock provision
Auditing fees provision
Water and waste water
Lawyer fees
Court fees
Paid vacations provision
Total fees and provisions
Deposits from customers
Deductions on behalf of customers & employees
Other Current Liabilities
Total Current Liabilities
Long Term Debt
Deferred taxes provision
Change in fixed assets value provision
Total Liabilities
Government paid in capital
Evaluation Reserve (+)
Additional paid in capital
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)
Current year deficit
Total Stockholder Equity
Total Liabilities
31/12/2008
259,023,178
640,489,551
2,922,063
183,570
4,271,763
4,062,599
3,895,000
17,270,769
32,605,764
80,111,334
85,209,522
67,374,854
1,164,814,203
377,829
1,165,192,032
2,408,473,400
449,044,761
2,136,341,704
(150,990,439)
(275,429,985)
4,567,439,441
5,732,631,473
31/12/2009
28,214,895
748,334,360
650,000
2,922,063
225,000
4,271,763
3,467,344
3,895,000
14,744,394
29,525,564
88,246,048
89,881,261
87,659,230
1,072,511,358
28,766,427
1,101,277,785
2,408,473,400
449,044,761
2,842,363,643
(35,889,859)
(252,347,618)
5,411,644,327
6,512,922,112
31/12/2010
73,669,147
1,239,641,911
2,922,063
150,000
2,250,000
3,150,088
3,581,231
14,795,182
26,848,564
96,478,643
128,783,771
109,012,899
1,674,434,935
1,674,434,935
2,408,473,400
449,044,761
3,193,682,607
(266,588,866)
(362,282,421)
5,422,329,481
7,096,764,416
31/12/2011
57,480,755
1,676,463,772
2,922,063
150,000
2,250,000
2,713,839
3,509,592
14,795,182
26,340,676
98,328,729
164,153,628
152,883,935
2,175,651,495
169,309
2,175,820,804
2,408,473,400
449,044,761
3,200,994,463
(628,871,287)
(588,128,955)
4,841,512,382
7,017,333,186
Gecol Income statement by L.D for year 2008-2011
Year
Revenue, LYD
Residential Lighting
Public facilities lighting
Industrial
Agricultural
Commercial Lighting
Street Lighting
Electricity Export
Electricity Revenue
Connection, fees, inspection, equipment rent etc.
Desalination
Adjustments & other income
Total Revenue, LYD
Special govt subsidies
Total Revenue including subsidies, LYD
Operating Expenses
Fuel costs
Electricity purchases
Salaries and allowances
Maintenance & support materials
Other service costs
Adjustments & other expenses
Total Operating Expense, LYD
Operating Income
Interest Expense
Depreciation
Income Before Tax
Taxes
Net Income, LYD (excluding special subsidies)
2008
2009
2010
119,943,807
178,124,900
53,956,712
70,360,948
146,744,832
199,291,654
2,777,439
771,200,292
102,529,189
1,049,356
58,985,323
933,764,160
933,764,160
134,691,074
160,228,985
59,691,811
79,379,282
162,103,424
249,762,672
3,002,316
848,859,564
89,033,159
4,201,466
12,664,552
954,758,741
490,410,985
1,445,169,726
152,561,252
179,625,939
80,379,206
82,563,107
164,375,492
270,916,040
6,446,273
936,867,309
88,490,823
6,046,364
25,171,575
1,056,576,071
400,000,000
1,456,576,071
337,321,671
292,518,167
177,547,598
83,508,673
91,094,033
981,990,142
(48,225,982)
12,827,281
214,376,722
(275,429,985)
(275,429,985)
663,336,675
12,061,571
371,684,943
230,612,586
82,840,279
98,413,225
1,458,949,279
(504,190,538)
14,751,416
223,816,649
(742,758,603)
(742,758,603)
711,464,704
258,120
408,587,321
222,954,203
119,625,259
89,108,119
1,551,997,726
(495,421,655)
11,642,151
255,218,615
(762,282,421)
(762,282,421)
2011
100,179,901
81,261,414
24,348,120
41,401,900
51,250,354
101,443,884
97,980
399,983,553
7,779,448
5,471,681
4,957,119
418,191,801
330,772,840
748,964,641
412,661,842
16,897,077
504,124,636
90,638,027
40,152,903
16,423,645
1,080,898,130
(662,706,329)
3,347,725
252,847,741
(918,901,795)
(918,901,795)
Ability to break even, make a net profit or cover its
operating costs by L.D for year 2012
Indicator and Formula Name by (L.D)
31/12/2008 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 31/12/2011
-275,429,985 -252,347,618 -362,282,421 -588,128,955
0.28
0.24
0.31
0.36
2
2
2
1
-29%
-27%
-39%
-63%
Cost with Local
Fuel Prices
Impacts with Local Fuel Prices for year 2012
Type of Fuel
Qua. (M3) year
2012
Price
)L.D/M3(
Local Fuel invoice Subsides
)%(
)M.LD(
HFO
1,420,713
36
51.1
96%
LFO
2,577,329
150
386.6
86%
GAS
7,451,056,782
0.008
62.6
98%
Fuel Invoice
500.3
93%
Transportation Expenses
22.1
Total
522.4
Detailed breakdown of expenses 2012 With
Local Fuel Price
(M.LD)
(%)
OPERATING MATERIAL (Fuel)
522.4
33%
Salaries & Allowances
758.6
47%
125.1
7%
11.6
1%
DEPRECIATION
185.0
12%
Total EXPENSES
1,602.7
100%
DESCREPTION
Overheads& Maintenance
Expenses
FINANCIAL COSTS & Services
Expenses
Discription for Energy flow through libyan grid 2012
Energy Generated From GECOL's P/S Including
Steel Complex P/S
Energy Consumed From GECOL's P/S
Energy consumed by Steel Complex P/S
Total Energy Transmitted to 400/220 kv grid
Losses in 400/220 kv grid
Net Energy Transmitted to 30/66 kv grid
Losses in 30/66 grid
Energy sold in 30/66 kv grid
Net Energy Transmitted to 11/0.4 kv grid
Losses in 11/0.4 kv grid
Energy sold in 11/0.4 kv grid
Commercial Losses
Technical Losses
Losses
[MWh]
33,967,420
%1.70
577,039
2,426,542
30,963,839
%2.00
619,277
30,344,563
%4.90
1,517,228
2,809,320
26,018,015
%10.40
3,220,239
10,184,355
%15.0
4,644,576
%17.30
5,356,744
Commercial and Technical Losses reference to year
2010
%32.30
10,001,320
Energy sould be sold in grid
%67.70
20,962,519
Energy sold in grid (bild)
%41.96
12,993,675
Non Tech. Losses add to Sales ( Year 2012 )
Principal Reasons
Dom.
S. Agr
L. Agr
L. Ind
H. Ind
Comm.
State.
Street Light
Total
Conn. not reported to GECOL
Connection not registered by electric company
Meter misinstalled
Meter malfunction
Meter not read
Meter not read accurately
No bill issued
Billing mistake
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
5
5
7
5
5
4
5
Total Points
8
8
1
8
1
8
6
0
40
Sales (MWh)
7,441,077
1,039,526
1,393,150
910,450
900,274
2,507,157
3,695,736
Total Points * Sales (MWh)
59,528,618
8,316,210
1,393,150
7,283,603
% Allocated
50
7
1
6
1
17
Comm Losses
2,310,715
322,809
54,078
282,727
34,946
Adjusted Sales
9,751,792
1,362,336
1,447,228
1,193,177
20
30
32
42
Electricity Tariff (Dirham/Kwh) for Different Category
Total Valu for Commercial Losses with Carent Tariff
46,214,298 9,684,279
900,274 20,057,255 22,174,416
3,075,149 20,962,519
0
119,653,526
19
0
100
778,560
860,742
0
4,644,576
935,219
3,285,717
4,556,478
31
68
68
1,730,488 11,874,521 1,083,320 52,942,078 58,530,424
3,075,149 25,607,095
68
0
0
182,059,407
Total Energy Sales 2012 [MWh]
Category
VL0 (0,4 kV) VL1 (11kV) VL2 (30/66 kV)
Total
Unit Cost by Type
of Customer with
Local fuel price
Dirham
/Kwh
Cent us$
/Kwh
Domestic
7,441,077
-
-
7,441,077 35%
97
7.4
Small
Agriculture
1,039,487
39
-
1,039,526 5%
83
6.4
Large
Agriculture
626,918
195,041
571,192
1,393,150 7%
49
3.8
Light
Industrial
673,733
163,881
72,836
910,450 4%
70
5.4
Heavy
Industrial
-
9,003
891,271
900,274 4%
47
3.6
Commercial
2,306,584
100,286
100,286
2,507,157 12%
80
6.2
State Offices
3,178,333
369,574
147,829
3,695,736 18%
64
5.0
Street Lighting
3,075,149
3,075,149 15%
59
4.6
Total
18,341,281
20,962,519 100%
76
5.9
837,824
1,783,414
PROFIT AND LOSSES ACCOUNT FOR YEAR 2012 with Local fuel price
Category
Domestic
Total Energy
Sales
Expenses
M.W.H
)M.LD(
Unit Cost
Unit Price
Revenue
Different
(subsides)
)M.LD(
(Dirham\KWh)
7,441,077
718
97
20
148.8
-569.3
1,039,526
86
83
30
31.2
-54.7
1,393,150
68
49
32
44.6
-23.5
Light Industrial
910,450
64
70
42
38.2
-25.4
Heavy
Industrial
900,274
42
47
31
27.9
-14.3
2,507,157
3,695,736
3,075,149
201
238
183
80
64
59
68
68
68
170.5
251.3
209.1
-30.2
13.3
26.2
20,962,519
1,599
76
44.0
Small
Agriculture
Large
Agriculture
Commercial
State Offices
Street Lighting
Total
921.6
Different
-677.8
-42%
Total expenses by type of activities with Local fuel
price [MLD]-2012
Type of expense
Generation
Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
514.6
0.5
7.3
522.4
Salaries
90.9
80.0
510.4
681.3
Depreciations
78.8
53.2
57.3
189.4
Other expenses
69.3
23.6
113.4
206.4
Total
753.6
157.4
688.5
1,599.4
Percentage
47.1%
9. 8%
43.1%
100.0%
Unit Cost by type of activities with Local fuel price
[Dirham / kwh]-2012
System Level
Generation Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
24.5
0.1
0.3
24.9
Salaries
4.3
3.8
24.4
32.5
Depreciations
3.8
2.5
2.7
9.0
Other expenses
3.3
1.1
5.4
9.8
Total
[Dirham/kWh]
35.9
7.5
32.8
76.3
Total
[Cent us$/kWh]
2.8
0.6
2.5
5.9
Unit Cost by type of activities with Local fuel price
[% / kwh]-2012
System Level
Generation Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
68%
0%
1%
33%
Salaries
12%
51%
74%
43%
Depreciations
10%
34%
8%
12%
Other expenses
9%
15%
16%
13%
Total
100%
100%
100%
100%
Cost with International
Fuel Prices
Impacts International Fuel Prices for year 2012
Type of Fuel
Qua. (M3) year
2012
Price
)L.D/M3(
International Fuel
Subsides
invoice
)%(
)M.LD(
HFO
1,420,713
917
1,302.8
96%
LFO
2,577,329
1,065
2,744.9
86%
GAS
7,451,056,782
0.425
3,166.7
98%
Fuel Invoice
7,214.4
93%
Transportation Expenses
22.1
Total
7,236.5
Statement of the value of Fuel subsidies is expected for the Year 2012 according to the amount for all Customer
1
Statement
Gasoline 95
Quantity/ton
Distribution
Company
Other Customers
Distribution
Company
Supply Shibs
2
Qty/leterdisc
0.978
0.029
51,394,389
0.978
0.029
1,303,271
1,571,744,810
1.011
0.029
45,379
54,726,493
1.011
0.045
Total unit cost
Unit
Subsides
L.D
The value of
Subsides L.D
4,074,196,782
0.020
1.072
0.150
0.922
0.020
1.027
0.150
0.877
45,055,444
0.025
1.110
0.150
0.960
1,508,740,129
0.029
0.025
1.065
0.745
0.320
17,505,045
0.045
4,119,252,226
1219.1625
1.011
0.029
0.025
1.065
0.150
0.915
2,358,034,449
91,003
109,749,520
1.011
0.029
0.025
1.065
0.150
0.915
100,411,392
202,009
256,753,097
0.995
0.029
1.024
0.545
0.479
123,079,173
0.995
0.029
1.024
0.545
0.479
12,459,090
0.995
0.029
0.020
1.089
0.090
0.999
202,503,900
3,227,500
0.995
0.029
0.020
1.044
0.090
0.954
3,080,222
22,306
24,402,626
0.888
0.029
0.917
0.585
0.332
8,102,992
1,298,641
1,420,713,358
0.888
0.029
0.917
0.036
0.881
1,252,009,491
226,389
247,669,708
0.888
0.029
0.917
0.036
0.881
218,259,949
33,408
2,227,172
19.289
0.400
1.000
0.250
20.939
2.000
18.939
42,181,385
208,630
13,908,682
19.289
0.400
1.000
0.250
20.939
2.000
18.939
263,422,613
178
11,888
19.289
0.400
0.250
19.939
2.000
17.939
213,264
11,385
1,035,007
14.146
0.400
1.000
0.250
15.796
1.500
14.296
14,796,033
‫موزعي الغاز‬
27,910
2,537,231
14.146
0.400
1.000
0.250
15.796
1.500
14.296
36,271,208
Other Customers
32
2,893
14.146
0.400
0.250
14.796
1.500
13.296
38,464
51,105,705
Other Customers
6,607
6,606,827
1.286
0.028
1.314
0.067
1.248
8,243,751
8,243,751
0.495
5.220
2.000
3.220
78,708,650
0.495
4.570
2.000
2.570
615,875
1012.09
Other Customers
Distribution
Company
Other Customers
Supply Shibs
General Electric
Company
Other Customers
Distribution
Company
Distribution Of
Gas
Other Customers
Distribution
Company
Oils For gasoline
engines
5
the
current
selling
price
2,577,328,566
Aviatoin
Liquefied Gas KG
4
FeesMade
River
4,420,495,030
Aviation Kerosene
Liquefied gas
cylinder 11 KG
1322.775
3
Margin of
Margin
supply,storage
distribution
and handling
2,137,088
Other Customers
Liquefied gas
cylinder 15 KG
1058.22
Cost of
Purcases
L.D/Unit
37,986
975.33
General Electric
Company
Heavy oil
Cost of
Purcases
L.D/Ton
3,267,180
Diesel Fuel
Kerosene Homes
Cost of
Purcases
US$/Ton
Distribution
Company
Other Customers
20,449
25,990,669
159,427
202,632,000
1012.09
2,539
777.4
1028.77
1028.77
1028.77
3,984,691,015
1265.1125
0.045
135,538,263
1265.1125
971.75
1285.9625
1285.9625
1285.9625
271,596
24,443,680
3.725
0.350
2,663
239,640
3.725
0.350
0.650
205,584,122
1,478,372,432
305,817,262
79,324,524
10,367,929,301
Natural gas M.btu
General Electric
Company
270,890,620
11.700
Total Subsides
0.208
11.492
3,113,075,005
3,113,075,005
13,481,004,306
Detailed breakdown of expenses 2012 With
International Fuel Price
(M.LD)
(%)
7,236.4
87%
758.6
9%
125.1
1.3%
11.6
0.7%
DEPRECIATION
185.0
2%
Total EXPENSES
8,316.7
100%
DESCREPTION
OPERATING MATERIAL (Fuel)
Salaries & Allowances
Overheads& Maintenance
Expenses
FINANCIAL COSTS & Services
Expenses
Total Energy Sales 2012 [MWh]
Category
VL0 (0,4 kV) VL1 (11kV)VL2 (30/66 kV)
Domestic
Total
Unit Cost by Type of
Customer with
International fuel
price
Dirham
/Kwh
Cent us$
/Kwh
7,441,077
-
-
7,441,077 35%
467
35.9
1,039,487
39
-
1,039,526 5%
444
34.2
626,918
195,041
571,192
1,393,150 7%
294
22.6
673,733
163,881
72,836
910,450 4%
379
29.2
-
9,003
891,271
900,274 4%
290
22.3
Commercial
2,306,584
100,286
100,286
2,507,157 12%
434
33.4
State Offices
3,178,333
369,574
147,829
3,695,736 18%
370
28.5
Street Lighting
3,075,149
3,075,149 15%
295
22.7
Total
18,341,281
20,962,519 100%
397
30.5
Small
Agriculture
Large
Agriculture
Light
Industrial
Heavy
Industrial
837,824
1,783,414
PROFIT AND LOSSES ACCOUNT FOR YEAR 2012 with International fuel
price
Total Energy
Sales
Expenses
M.W.H
)M.LD(
7,441,077
3,476
467
20
148.8
-3,327.5
1,039,526
462
444
30
31.2
-430.5
1,393,150
410
294
32
44.6
-365.3
Light Industrial
910,450
345
379
42
38.2
-307.2
Heavy
Industrial
900,274
261
290
31
27.9
-233.4
2,507,157
3,695,736
3,075,149
1,089
1,367
906
434
370
295
68
68
68
170.5
251.3
209.1
-918.8
-1,115.8
-696.6
20,962,519
8,317
397
44.0
Category
Domestic
Small
Agriculture
Large
Agriculture
Commercial
State Offices
Street Lighting
Total
Unit Cost
Unit Price
Revenue
Different
(subsides)
)M.LD(
(Dirham\KWh)
921.6
Different
-7,395.1
-89%
Total expenses by type of activities with
International fuel price [MLD]-2012
Type of expense
Generation
Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
7,228.6
0.5
7.3
7,236.3
Salaries
90.9
80.0
510.4
681.3
Depreciations
78.8
53.2
57.3
189.4
Other expenses
69.3
23.6
113.4
206.4
Total
7,467.6
157.4
688.5
8,313.4
Percentage
89.8%
1.9%
8.3%
100.0%
Unit Cost by type of activities with International fuel
price [Dirham / kwh]-2012
System Level
Generation Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
344.8
0.1
0.3
345.2
Salaries
4.3
3.8
24.4
32.5
Depreciations
3.8
2.5
2.7
9.0
Other expenses
3.3
1.1
5.4
9.8
Total
[Dirham/kWh]
356.2
7.5
32.8
396.5
Total
[Cent us$/kWh]
27.4
0.6
2.5
30.5
Unit Cost by type of activities with International
fuel price [% / kwh]-2012
System Level
Generation Transmission
Distribution &
Customer service
Total
Fuel
97%
0%
1%
87%
Salaries
1%
51%
74%
8%
Depreciations
1%
34%
8%
2%
Other expenses
1%
15%
16%
2%
Total
100%
100%
100%
100%
Compared to the tariff rates and energy
consumption
Between some Arab countries
Average electricity
tariff
Us Cents/kwh
Electricity
consumption
(kWh/capita)
Libya
3.3
4,850
Saudi Arabia
3.3
8,311
Jordan
7.1
2,169
Tunisia
9.5
1,252
Algeria
4.7
1,050
Morocco
11.2
744
Egypt
2.5
1,439
Country
All definitions of electric power consumption in the Arab countries supported but varying degrees
Compared to the tariff for some segments of the
electrical consumption between some Arab countries
(cents US$/kWh. And. Q)
Country
Domestic
) KWH 1000(
Commercial
)KWH 5000(
Industrial
)KWH(
Street Lighting
)KWH(
Libya
Saudi
Jordan Tunisia Algeria Morocco
Arabia
1.6
1.4
m12.5
k11.9
5.8
m14.7
5.7
l2.3
12.1
12.2
6
k16.7
3.5
3.3
6.9
8.3
3.8
14.2
5.7
1.4
7.2
9.7
-
12.9
Symbolizes the number displayed next to the tariff to the number of slides included in the field of
.consumption
.Source: Report of the Arab Union of Producers, Transporters and Distributors of Electricity
Average per capita consumption and Libyan families and
subsides the value of the expected International fuel price
for the year 2012
Average household consumption for the individual and the Libyan
families: the amount of household consumption (7,441,077 M.w.h)
Average consumption
Average consumption
K.w.h/ month
K.w.h/ Year
6,371,480
97.3
1,168
1,274,296
486.6
5,839
Statement
Year 2012
Population Statistics
Statistics the number of households
value of the subsidy in the electricity bill for home consumption (M.L.D=
3,327.5) at an average cost of support around 447 Dirham / k. W. h - This
support covers the value of domestic consumption only.
Statement
Domestic
subsides the value of
subsides the value of
subsides
consumption
consumption
)M.L.D(
subsides the individual
subsides the Family
3,327.50
)L.D/Month(
)L.D/Year(
43.5
522
217.5
2,611
This support covers only the value of household consumption of all Libyan families.
Average per capita consumption and Libyan families and
subsides the value of the expected International fuel price
for the year 2012
average consumption for all segments of consumption for the
individual and the Libyan families: The amount of consumption for all
sectors (20,962,519 M.w.h)
Average consumption
Average consumption
K.w.h/ month
K.w.h/ Year
6,371,480
274.2
3,290
Statistics the number of households 1,274,296
1,371
16,450
Statement
Year 2012
Population Statistics
value of the subsidy in the electricity bill for all segments of consumption (=
7,395.1M.L.D) at an average cost of support around 353 Dirham / k. w. h - This
support covers the value of household consumption and consumption of all
other sectors.
All sector
subsides the value of subsides the value of
Statement
subsides the individual
subsides the Family
This support covers all sectors
subsides
)M.L.D(
7,395.10
consumption
)L.D/Month(
consumption
)L.D/Year(
97
1,161
484
5,803
‫اآللية المقترحة لسداد الدعم النقدي والية دفع مقابل الخدمات من المستهلك‪.‬‬
‫نقترح أن تكون آلية إدارة وسداد الدعم النقدي من خالل وجوود كيوان أو جهوا (شوباك‬
‫موحد) يتولى فتح حساب لكل األسر الليبية (حسب المقترح المرفو ) مورتبط بمنظوموة‬
‫صرف (‪ 2000‬دينار) مع بطاقوة الورقم الووطنت يوتم فيوا إيودام الودعم النقودي مباشورة‬
‫لحسوواب رب األسوورة الليبيووة ويووتم الصوورف منووا بطريقووة تطوومن قيووام المووواطن بوودفع‬
‫ماعليا من الت امات مقابل الخدمات التى تقدم لا من الدولة بأحدى الطر التالية‪:‬‬
‫• يتم إحالة فواتير الخدمات لكل رب اسرة من الجهات العامة مباشرة كشركة الكهرباء‬
‫إلى الشباك الموحد ليتولى خصومها وتسوديد ا مباشورة للشوركةم لطومان سوداد حقوو‬
‫الشركةم بما يمكنها من تحسين نسبة الجباية وتحسين خدماتها‪.‬‬
‫• أحالووة قيمووة الوودعم فووت الكهربوواء سوونويا الووى القطووام ويووتم إصوودار فوواتورة للمسووتهلك‬
‫بالفوووار بوووين مبلوووب الووودعم وبوووين فووواتورة اسوووتهالكا فوووت حالوووة ا سوووتهالك أكبووور مووون‬
‫المخصص لام لطمان تحصيل مقابل استهالكا‪.‬‬
‫• أو يتم صرف قيموة الودعم النقودي ل سور الليبيوة والو ام رب األسورة بسوداد موا عليووا‬
‫موون الت امووات للجهووات العامووة وفووت حالووة عوودم الت امووا يووتم تجميوود حسووابا إلووى حووين‬
‫إحطار ما يفيد تسوية أموره اإلدارية والمالية مع شركة الكهرباء‪.‬‬
‫توصيات عامة‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ارتفام نصيب الفرد من استهالك الكهرباء تعتبر عالمة واطحة على انخفاض الكفاءة‬
‫وسوء استخدام الطاقة الكهربائيةم ويمكن إرجام تدنى الكفاءة الى سببين رئيسين ما‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬التعريفة المنخفطة ستهالك الكهرباء‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬انخفاض كفاءة األجه ة والمعدات التى تستخدم فوت السو الليبت بسبب عدم تطبي‬
‫المعايير والمواصفات فت توريد ذه األجه ة الكهربائية‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬وطع سياسات للتصدى لظا رة الفاقد التجارى فت الطاقة والعمل علووووووووووى تحسين الفاقد‬
‫الفنت فت الشبكة العامةم بما ينعكس ايجابيا على المداخيل المالية للشركة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ا ستثمار فت المشروعات الكهربائية يشكل عنص ار اما بالنسبة للتنمية ولكن طمان‬
‫قدرة الدولة على ا ستمرار فت تحمل تكاليف ذه ا ستثمارات يواجا مخاطر بسبب تذبذب‬
‫اسعار النفط المصدر الوحيد للدخلم حيث حظنا أن الدولة تنف على كافة استثمارات‬
‫قطام الكهرباء وتمول نفقات العمرات الجسيمة لمحطات اإلنتاجم وتغطت الفرو قات‬
‫المالية بين اسعار بيع وحدة الطاقة والتكلفة الفعلية لهام عليا ينبغت وطع سياسات‬
‫لتخفيض األعباء المالية على المالية العامة للدولة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬استمرار ت ويد الشركة بالوقود والغا الطبيعت بأسعار دون األسعار الدولية تؤدي الى‬
‫تخصيص غير كفؤ للموارد فت الصناعة و تشجع علوووووووووووووووووووووووووى حسن األداء والترشيد‬
‫فت استهالك الطاقة‪.‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫العمل علـــــى تطبيق آلية استبدال الدعم العيني للسلع والخدمات بالـــدعم النقدي لتحفيز‬
‫المواطن على الترشيد في استهالكه وتطبيق مقترحات الية سداد الدعم النقدي للمواطن‬
‫وتحصيل مقابل الخدمات المقدمة للمستهلك‪.‬‬
‫حت القطاعات المختلفة المستهلكة للطاقة الصناعية والزراعية وغيرها على دراسة‬
‫تكلفة منتجاتها بعد استبدال الدعم لمعرفة تأثير اسعار الطاقة في تكلفة منتجاتها‪.‬‬
‫ليبيا تسعى الـــى الدخول بمنظمة التجارة العالمية (‪ )WTO‬واالتفاقيات الخاصة بمنظمة‬
‫التجارة تتطلب النظر في دعم الكهرباء والمحروقات بشكل عــــــــــــــــــام وإعادة هيكلة‬
‫القطاع‪ ،‬بما يسمح بفتح باب المنافسة ودخول القطاع الخاص لممارسة هــــــــذا النشاط‬
‫بمختلف مستوياته‪.‬‬
‫فتح المجال لالستثمار في مصادر الطاقة المتجددة وكفاءة استخدام الطاقة وإدارة جانب‬
‫الطلب من خالل وضـــــع معايير جديدة لألجهزة الكهربائية وإضاءة الشوارع والمواقع‬
‫الصناعية‪.‬‬
‫العمل على الترشيد في األنفاق وتحسين كفاءة األداء للعاملين بالقطاع‪ ،‬حيث شهد عدد‬
‫العاملين بالشركة زيادة مضطردة في السنوات الماضية وانعكس ذلك على إنتاجية مرفق‬
‫الكهرباء حيث بلغ في المتوسط حوالي ‪ 34‬مستهلك لكل موظف بالشركة وإذا ما قارنا‬
‫ذلك مع إنتاجية مرفق الكهرباء بالمملكة العربية السعودية نجدها حوالي ‪ 173‬مستهلكا ً‬
‫لكل موظف‪.‬‬
The proposed mechanism for the payment of cash support and
payment mechanism for services from consumers.
We suggest that the management mechanism and the
payment of cash subsides through the presence of an
entity or a ( single window services ) shall open an
account for each Libyan families (according to the
proposed annex) linked system of exchange (2000 L.D )
card with the national number is the deposit of cash
support directly to calculate the head of the family
Libyan and exchange it is a way to ensure that the
citizens pay Maalih of commitments for the services
that give it one of the state The following ways:
Referral services are billed for each family of the Lord
of the public bodies directly into electricity as a single
window to take deducted and paid directly to the
company, to ensure the repayment of the Company's
rights , so that they can improve the ratio of tax
collection and improve its services .
Committed value of the subsidy in electricity
annually to the sector and are issuing an
invoice to the consumer the difference between
the amount of support and the bill for
consumption in the case of consumption is
greater than his allotted to ensure the collection
for the service.
Or is an exchange value of cash support for
families and the Libyan obligation to pay the
head of the family Maalih obligations of public
entities in the absence of commitment to their
account is frozen until Ahzar Maevid settlement
of administrative and financial affairs with the
electricity company.
General recommendations :
1. High per capita consumption of electricity is a clear sign of the low efficiency
and poor use of electric power , and the low efficiency can be traced to two
main reasons :
 Low tariff for electricity consumption.
Low efficiency of appliances and equipment that are used in the Libyan market
because of the lack of application of the standards and specifications in the
supply of these electrical appliances.
Develop policies to deal with the phenomenon of trade losses in the energy and
work to improve the technical losses in the public network , which will be
reflected positively on the financial income of the company.
2. Investment in electricity projects is an important element for development , but
to ensure the state's ability to continue to bear the costs of these investments
face the risk due to the fluctuation of oil prices, the only source of income ,
where we noticed that the state spends on all investments in the electricity
sector and funded the expenses of overhauling gross production plants ,
covering fur Qat Finance between selling prices and the power unit and the
actual cost to them, it should develop policies to reduce the financial burden
on the public finances of the state.
3. Continuing to provide the company with fuel and natural gas prices below
international prices lead to inefficient allocation of resources in the industry
does not encourage good performance and rationalization of energy
consumption.
4 . Work on the application of the replacement in-kind support for goods and
services support critical to stimulate citizens to rationalization in the
consumption and the application of the mechanism of repayment proposals
cash support to the citizen and collect for services provided to the consumer.
5. Libya is seeking to enter the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the
WTO agreements require special consideration in support of electricity and
fuel in general and the restructuring of the sector, including allowing open
the door to competition and the entry of the private sector to practice this
activity in various levels .
6. Open the way for investment in renewable energy sources and energy
efficiency and demand-side management through the development of new
standards for electrical and street lighting and industrial sites .
7. Work on the rationalization in the tunnels and improve the efficiency of the
sector workers , which saw the number of employees of the company
steadily increased in the past years and is reflected in the productivity of
the electricity utility , where an average of about 34 consumer per
employee company and if we compare it with the production facility of
electricity in Saudi Arabia found about 173 consumers per employee .
Thank you for Your Attention

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