BMW prototype that runs on hydrogen http://gm-volt.com/2011/12/12/gm-and-bmw-to-collaborate-on-hydrogen-vehicles/ http://phillihp.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/hydrogen_fuel_cell_car2.jpg 69. As economies develop and mature, what energy path do they tend to follow? high carbon/low hydrogen fuels at early stages to fuels with higher hydrogen and lower carbon contents Typically, what are the three stages nations follow in energy development? (1) use wood as their main primary fuel at a pre-industrial stage (2) shift to coal during industrialization (3) then transition to oil and natural gas as their economies mature Why does this progression takes place? It takes place because each new fuel is cleaner-burning and easier to distribute and store than its predecessor The United States and western Europe are beginning to plan for perhaps the next stage on the decarbonization path— hydrogen—but this transition will require several decades to design and deploy systems for producing, transporting, and using hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen powered airplanes http://www.greendiary.com/bucher-citycat-h2-world-s-first-hydrogen-powered-municipal-vehicle-is-really-clean.html 70. What is sometimes called a "fuel of the future" and an energy carrier? Hydrogen Like electricity, pure Hydrogen does not occur naturally in quantities worth harnessing to meet human energy needs: the main naturally occurring stocks of hydrogen are tied up in chemical compounds, most importantly water molecules (H2O) and hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and methane (CH4). Stripping hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels or obtaining it by splitting water using electricity or heat is not technically difficult. What is the problem with obtaining hydrogen? more electricity or primary-fuel energy is used than the resulting hydrogen contains 71. What are the benefits of paying this energy price to get hydrogen? hydrogen's portability, storability, amenability to high-efficiency application and low emissions. One application currently under research is the use of hydrogen fuel cells to power car. https://www.llnl.gov/str/June07/Aceves.html View under the hood of a fuel cell car http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/img_lrg/hydrogen_energy.jpg 72. Today, the oil and chemical industries worldwide use about 50 million tons of hydrogen each year, most of it extracted from natural gas and coal. Deriving hydrogen from fossil fuels emits CO2, so scaling the process up would increase greenhouse gas emissions unless the associated carbon were captured and stored 74. Existing fuel cell technologies can convert as much as 70 percent of hydrogen's energy content to electricity. Why are none of the basic designs in use today ready for mass production? not cheap and technically simple enough yet for mass production Fuel cells have been used for applications such as producing power on manned space missions Space shuttle Atlantis during liftoff. The space shuttles used Hydrogen gas fuel cells. http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/nasa-shuttle-launch-3_sm2.jpg 75. The transition to a hydrogen economy poses many challenges. List these. • it takes seven times as much hydrogen on a volume basis to produce the same amount of energy in a gallon of gasoline • building new energy storage and distribution systems nationwide • cars, heating systems, and consumer goods—will have to be converted Most expert assessments of the timing for a hydrogen economy project that such systems will not start to be deployed on a large scale until 2020 or later, and that making a full transition from fossil fuels to hydrogen in the United States would take until approximately 2050 or later. The Famous Hydrogen Gas Airship. Can you name it?