chapter 11 Q & A

1. What can your brain do that goes
beyond memory?
Thinking and problem solving are
brain processes that go beyond
2. Thought processes depend on what five
units of thought?
The five units of thought are
images, symbols,
concepts, prototypes, and rules.
3. What kind of thinking may result in
unexpected insights?
Nondirected thinking may result in
unexpected insights.
4. On what does problem solving depend?
Problem solving depends on the use of
strategies, or specific methods for
approaching problems.
5. How do heuristics act as shortcuts in
problem solving?
Heuristics simplify a problem, allowing us
to make quick decisions.
6. How can you overcome rigidity in problem
You can overcome rigidity in problem
solving by realizing that your strategy is
not working and look for other ways to
approach the problem.
7. What are two characteristics of creative
Two characteristics of creativity are
flexibility and the ability to recombine
elements to achieve insight.
8. What four rules make up language?
Language consists of four rules:
phonemes(individual sound:
consonants or vowels),
morphemes(smallest unit of meaning:
book, love), syntax(words combined
to form meaningful sentences), and
semantics(meaning in language).
9. How did B.F. Skinner believe children learn
B.F. Skinner believed that children
learn language through operant
10. What did Noam Chomsky believe about
children’s ability to learn language?
Noam Chomsky theorized that infants
inherit a mental program that enables
them to learn grammar.
11. At what age do children reach the first
stage of language development?
Children reach the first stage of
language development at 4
12. What do children learn when babbling?
When babbling, children learn to
control their vocal cords and to make,
change, repeat, and imitate the
sounds of their parents.
13. At around 12 months of age, what
language skill does an infant display?
At around 12 months of age, infants begin
to utter single words to describe familiar
objects and people and to express longer
14. What is telegraphic speech?
Telegraphic speech is a pattern of
speaking in which a child around age 2–3
forms sentences but leaves out articles,
prepositions, and parts of verbs.
15. What did Benjamin Whorf mean by the
term linguistic relativity?
Linguistic relativity refers to the idea
that a person’s language influences his
or her thoughts.

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