1. What can your brain do that goes beyond memory? Thinking and problem solving are brain processes that go beyond memory. 2. Thought processes depend on what five units of thought? The five units of thought are images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules. 3. What kind of thinking may result in unexpected insights? Nondirected thinking may result in unexpected insights. 4. On what does problem solving depend? Problem solving depends on the use of strategies, or specific methods for approaching problems. 5. How do heuristics act as shortcuts in problem solving? Heuristics simplify a problem, allowing us to make quick decisions. 6. How can you overcome rigidity in problem solving? You can overcome rigidity in problem solving by realizing that your strategy is not working and look for other ways to approach the problem. 7. What are two characteristics of creative thinking? Two characteristics of creativity are flexibility and the ability to recombine elements to achieve insight. 8. What four rules make up language? Language consists of four rules: phonemes(individual sound: consonants or vowels), morphemes(smallest unit of meaning: book, love), syntax(words combined to form meaningful sentences), and semantics(meaning in language). 9. How did B.F. Skinner believe children learn language? B.F. Skinner believed that children learn language through operant conditioning. 10. What did Noam Chomsky believe about children’s ability to learn language? Noam Chomsky theorized that infants inherit a mental program that enables them to learn grammar. 11. At what age do children reach the first stage of language development? Children reach the first stage of language development at 4 months. 12. What do children learn when babbling? When babbling, children learn to control their vocal cords and to make, change, repeat, and imitate the sounds of their parents. 13. At around 12 months of age, what language skill does an infant display? At around 12 months of age, infants begin to utter single words to describe familiar objects and people and to express longer thoughts. 14. What is telegraphic speech? Telegraphic speech is a pattern of speaking in which a child around age 2–3 forms sentences but leaves out articles, prepositions, and parts of verbs. 15. What did Benjamin Whorf mean by the term linguistic relativity? Linguistic relativity refers to the idea that a person’s language influences his or her thoughts.