AP Review - Learning

Report
Learning
• Classical Conditioning
– Ivan Pavlov
– Neutral stimulus
– Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
– Unconditioned response (UCR)
– Acquisition
– Conditioned stimulus (CS)
– Conditioned response (CR)
Learning
Learning
• Operant Conditioning
– B.F. Skinner
– Positive and negative reinforcement
– Contingencies of reinforcement
– Schedules o reinforcement
– Ratio or interval
– Fixed versus variable
Cognitive Learning
• Insight learning - problem solving occurs by means of
a sudden reorganization of perceptions
– Wolfgang Köhler
Cognitive Learning
• Cognitive maps - mental representation of physical
space
– Edward Tolman
Cognitive Learning
• Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiment
The type of learning in which association plays a
major role is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Classical conditioning
Instinctual learning
Operant conditioning
Social learning
Insight learning
83%
17%
A.
0%
0%
B.
C.
0%
D.
E.
When you learn to ignore the sound of traffic on
the busy street where you live, you are exhibiting
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100%
Unlearning
Habituation
Conditioning
Instinct
Prompting
0%
A.
0%
B.
C.
0%
0%
D.
E.
You were conditioned to smile when you hear Christmas carols.
During the summer, this response diminishes. However, in
November when you hear these songs, you begin to smile again.
In classical conditioning, the return of this response is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Acquisition
Extinction
Reconditioning
Spontaneous recovery
Generalizations
92%
8%
0%
A.
0%
B.
C.
0%
D.
E.
You were frightened by a yellow cat when you
were a child. Now you get scared whenever you
see any cat. In classical conditioning, this
response would be known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Spontaneous recovery
Discrimination
Generalization
Insight
Extinction
73%
27%
0%
A.
B.
C.
0%
0%
D.
E.
Your psychology professor gives several scheduled short
quizzes and three scheduled tests throughout the
semester. She is using a __________schedule of
reinforcement.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Fixed interval
Variable ratio
Variable interval
Fixed ratio
Continuous
56%
33%
11%
0%
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
E.
Stimuli that fulfill basic needs and acts as a reinforce are
called_______ reinforcers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90%
Secondary
Natural
Conditioned
Primary
Neutral
10%
0%
A.
0%
B.
C.
0%
D.
E.
Punishment is designed to ______ a behavior while
negative reinforcement is designed to _______ a
behavior.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Increase, decrease
Extinguish, repeat
Highlight, emphasize
Repeat, extinguish
Decrease, increase
82%
18%
0%
A.
0%
B.
C.
0%
D.
E.
The lights in your house went out and it was pitch dark in
your house. You were able to navigate to the kitchen
because of a _______ map.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Navigation
Cognitive
Memory
Representation
Environmental
92%
8%
0%
A.
B.
C.
0%
0%
D.
E.
You are in the grocery store waiting to check out. Your
son cries because he wants candy. When you give in to
his demands to make the tantrum stop, he has been
________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Positively reinforced
Socially reinforced
Negatively reinforced
Positively punished
Classical conditioning
55%
36%
9%
0%
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
E.
Kohler’s study of chimpanzees suggests that they
reorganize their perceptions, a mental process he
called ______ learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Operant
Latent
Classical
Insight
Perceptual
64%
18%
9%
9%
0%
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Jack learned how to shoot a free-throw by
watching his older brother. Bandura called this
________ learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Insight
Latent
Imitational
Perceptual
Observational
83%
8%
A.
8%
0%
0%
B.
C.
D.
E.
Studies of learning have shown that animals
develop a aversion for tastes associated with…
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67%
Electric shock
Extinguished association
Sickness
Novel stimuli
Starvation
17%
8%
8%
0%
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

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