Tomas Unit 1 ppt - Mater Academy Charter Middle/ High

Report
What is Psychology?
What movies have you seen with professional
psychologists as characters?
• kind of work done?
• area of specialty?
• how realistic was characterization?
Exercise: Psychologist as Scientist
List three adjectives that describe a
typical scientist.
List three adjectives that describe a
typical psychologist.
Science:
Where is Psychology?
art
chemistry
___1_________2_________3_________4_________5_________6_________7___
philosophy
physics
Roots of Psychology – Pre-scientific
Dualism – Mind/Body are separate and
interact
Monism – Mind/Body are parts of the
same thing.
 Hippocrates- mind/soul
 Aristotle – mind/soul are a
reside in the brain but not a
physical substance.
 Plato – used self
examination(introspection)
and concluded knowledge is
Innate
 Descartes – “I think,
therefore I am”
result of our anatomy and
physiology. Knowledge is
acquired by experience.
 Locke – we are born a “blank
slate” (tabula rasa) and
experience fills the slate.
Psychology’s Roots
Psychological Science is Born
 Wilhelm Wundt (1879)
• Founder of scientific
psychology
• Set up first lab in 1879 in
Leipzig, Germany
• Focused on structure of the
mind and indentifying basic
elements of consciousness
using introspection.
Psychology developed into three different
branches, or schools of thought
• structuralism (structural elements)
• functionalism (functions)
• behaviorism (observable behavior)
Structuralism Thinking About the Mind’s
STRUCTURE
 Emphasizes consciousness and identification of




elements of thought using introspection.
Wilhelm Wundt - studied consciousness using
introspection.
G. Stanley Hall – brought introspection to U.S. at
John Hopkins University, First President of American
Psychological Association (A.P.A).
Edward Titchener – studied elements of
consiousness at Cornell University.
Margaret Washburn – First woman to complete her
Ph.D. in psychology
Functionalism – Thinking about the mind’s
Function
 Emphasizes how organisms uses its perceptual
abilities to adapt to its environment. Want to
EXPLAIN behavior by OBSERVING behavior.
 William James – wrote Principles of Psychology.
 Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman president of the
A.P.A.
 Functionalism paved the way for behaviorism and
applied subfields of psychology.
Unit 1 Pop Quiz
(get a piece of paper)
A test of how you react to unexpected
situations
 Q#1: What did you experience when you learned of
the “pop” quiz? (introspection)
 Q#2: Which thoughts and emotions were
Expressed by the class? (observable)
 Q#3: What steps might you take to overcome
anxiety when faced with unexpected
situations?(applied)
Psychological Science Develops (1920s)
LO #3
Sigmund Freud (childhood experiences
and unconscious thought processes affect
behavior)
Sex
Violence
Unconscious
Mind
Psychological Science
Develops (1960s)
Behaviorism
John B. Watson
B.F. Skinner
(reinforcement theory)
“study of observable
behavior”
Fidgeting
Crying
trembling
+
GET
something
REMOVE
something
“you be the parent”
(1. You caught your son/daughter sneaking out the window on Sat night…..)
(2. You want your son/daughter to study at least 1 hour every night….)
Behavior Encouraged
Stimulus
presented
+
(get)
Stimulus
removed
or
withheld
–
(remove)
Behavior Suppressed
Psychological Science Develops 1960s
Humanistic psychology
Carl Rogers (environmental influences, need for love
and acceptance)
Abraham Maslow
(hierarchy of needs)
Psychological Science Develops 1960s
 Cognitive Neuroscience
(study of brain functioning)
examples . . . What part of brain is working when we do arithmetic?
What chemical allows us to react to physical excitement or danger?
And
Cognitive-Behavioral theory.
How do my thoughts affect my
behaviors?
1
Stressful
Think / Feel / Do
Sinful
(Old Adam)
Godly 6
( New Man )
5
3
4
Peaceful
Accepting
Wronged
Thought
Anger
Feeling
Peaceful
Horn &
Finger!
Action
Smile or a
Shrug
7
Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist!
2
Assignment:
Recall two occurrences when you
recognize and then intentionally
restructure your emotional response
to a cognitive event.
Prepare to share one in class.
Psychological Science Develops
Psychology Defined as: The Scientific
study of Behavior and
Mental processes.
 3 parts
 Scientific study – collection and
examination of data to prove or
support hypotheses.
 Behavior – anything observable.
 Mental Processes – thoughts, feelings,
sensations, perceptions.
(unobservable)
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of
Analysis
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of
Analysis
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of
Analysis
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of
Analysis
Psychological
Approaches/Perspectives
biological
• physiological and bio-chemical factors that
determine behavior and mental processes.
evolutionary
• how the natural selection of traits promoted
the survival of the human species
psychodynamic
• how behavior is influenced by unconscious
drives and conflicts
behavioral
cognitive
• how organisms react to stimuli, learning as a
result of experience.
humanistic
• how we encode, process, store and retrieve
information
social-cultural
• how we meet our needs for love and
acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment
•how behavior and thinking vary across
situations and cultures
Psychology’s Subfields
LO #6
psychometrics
difference between basic and
applied research?
basic research
FIELDS:
Biological psychology
Developmental
psychology
Educational psychology
Personality psychology
Social psychology
• investigates persistent
traits
• studies changing
abilities throughout the
life span
• explores how we view
and affect one another
• studies influences on
teaching and learning
• explores link between
brain and behavior
applied research
FIELDS:
Industrial/organizational
psychology
Counseling psychology
Clinical psychology
psychiatry
• helps people cope with
adjustments, challenges, and
crises
• used in the workplace to help
companies select and train
employees
• medical doctors who may
prescribe drugs in treatment
• assesses and treats mental,
emotional, and behavior
disorders
• focuses on interaction of
people, machines, and physical
environments
Psychology’s Biggest Question
Nature-Nurture Issue
biology vs. experience
Are we a product of how we are born,
biologically predisposed, DNA, etc..
OR are we a result of our experiences?
Unit 1 Review
• What is Structuralisms goal and method?
•What is Functionalisms goal and method?
•What is the difference between Introspection and
Observation?
•Which modern approaches fit with Structuralism?
•Which modern approaches fit with Functionalism?
Unit 1 Review
• Who said:
•“the mind is a tabula rasa”
•“I think, therefore I am”
•“We learn from experience”
•“Knowledge is Innate”
Unit 1 Review
• What is Structuralisms goal and method?
•Emphasizes consciousness and identification of elements of thought using introspection.
•What is Functionalisms goal and method?
•Emphasizes how organisms uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment. Want
to EXPLAIN behavior by OBSERVING behavior.
•What is the difference between Introspection and
Observation?
•Introspection is looking within and self reporting, while observation is reporting what
behaviors you and others can see and measure.
•Which modern approaches fit with Structuralism?
•Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Evolutionary, Social Cultural
•Which modern approaches fit with Functionalism?
•Behavioral, Biological, cognitive
Unit 1 Review
• Who said:
•“the mind is a tabula rasa” - Locke - Monism
•“I think, therefore I am” – Descartes - Dualism
•“We learn from experience” – Aristotle - Monism
•“Knowledge is Innate” - Plato - Dualism
Video: Vol. 1, DVD2,
Psychological Disorders #2
Postpartum Psychosis:
The Case of Andrea Yates
(7:00)
Set 5
Behavior of Andrea Yates (p. 9)
Biological / Neuroscience –
Behaviorism –
Humanistic psychology –
Evolutionary psychology –
Psychoanalysis / psychodynamic –
Developmental psychology –
Cognitive psychology –
Set 6
Behavior of Andrea Yates (p. 9)
Biological / Neuroscience –
Behaviorism –
Humanistic psychology –
Evolutionary psychology –
Psychodynamic psychology –
Developmental psychology –
Cognitive psychology –

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