COU 522 Overview of Human Growth and Development

Report
OVERVIEW OF HUMAN
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Erford, B. , Hays, D. , Crockett, S. ,Miller, E. (2011). Mastering the National
Counselor Examination and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination.
Upper Saddle, N. J.: Pearson Education, Inc.
Development
1



Involves the changes in human beings between
conception and death.
Influenced by genetic and environmental conditions
Described within the physical, cognitive, moral,
emotional, personality, and social development
domains.
Developmental stages










Prenatal period (conception to birth)
Infancy (birth to 2 years)
Toddlerhood ( 2 – 3 years)
Early childhood (3 – 5 years)
Middle childhood ( 6 -12 years)
Adolescents (13 – 19 years)
Young adulthood (19 – 30 years)
Middle adulthood (about 30 – 60 years)
Late adulthood ( about 60 – 75 years)
Old age ( about 75+)
Types of Aging
2

Biological aging – metabolic changes
Anabolism: the body building to peak potential
and occurs from birth to an age that varies by
individual.
Catabolism: the body’s usually slow deterioration
from peak through an individual’s death.
Types of Aging cont.


Psychological aging: one’s perception of personal
age. E.g. one may “feel” young or “feel” old.
Social aging: how one’s chronological age is viewed
within the societal or cultural context and is affected
by vocation and socioeconomic status. E.g. how
aged citizens are regarded in Eastern cultures vs
Western cultures.
Categorizing theories of human
development
3





Learning theories
Cognitive
Psychoanalytic (psychodynamic)
Humanistic
Ethological to study a behavioral process (e.g. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals rather
than one particular animal group.)



Language Development
Physical Development
Moral Development
Categorizing theories of human
development




Nature vs Nurture
Continuous Development
Discontinuous Development
Active and Reactive theories
Special Designs in Human Development
Research 4







Case study
Naturalistic study
Survey research
Correlational research
Cross-sectional design studies
Longitudinal design studies
Time-lag studies
The Central Nervous System
5
Human development relies heavily on cognitive and
physical processes, thus making development and
maturation of the central nervous system critical.
Development of the Central Nervous
System



Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: the network of nerves
that connects the central nervous system to the rest
of the body (e.g. fingers, arms, toes, legs)
Growth of the brains involves: the addition of new
neurons and interconnectedness of these neurons
and myelination (i.e. insulation of the neuron to
enhance speed of neural transmissions).
The Brain



The hindbrain: responsible for life maintenance and
survival functions (medulla oblongata, cerebellum, pons,
reticular activating system)
The midbrain: connects the hindbrain and the forebrain,
controls eye muscles, relays auditory and visual
information to the brain’s center for higher level
thinking.
The forebrain: consists of the cerebral cortex, which is
responsible for higher order behavior and conscious
thought (left and right hemisphere, corpus callosum,
cerebral cortex –occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal
lobe, frontal lobe)
Other structures in the brain






Thalamus
Limbic system
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampus
Hemispheric specialization or lateralization
Genetic disorders
6



Autosomal diseases
Phenylketonuria
Sickle cell anemia
Tay-Sachs disease
X-linked diseases
Sex chromosomal diseases
Turner syndrome
Klinefelter’s syndrome
Learning theories
7


Learning = a relatively permanent change in
behavior or thinking resulting from an individual’s
experiences.
Learning theorists propose that individuals observe
and react to their environment.
Stimulus-response theories and social learning
theories.
Classical Conditioning





Ivan Pavlov – studies on the salivation of dogs when
presented with food powder.
Classical conditioning experiments
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – meat powder
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – neutral –tone, bell..
Conditioned Response (CR)
Establishing a classically conditioned
response







Simultaneous conditioning: US and CS presented at the
same time.
Delayed conditioning: CS begins first but overlaps
presentation of the US – most effective
Backward conditioning: The US is presented before the
CS.
Extinction
Spontaneous recovery
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus discrimination
John B. Watson





“father of American behaviorism”
“if you cannot observe it, it doesn’t exist”
Development involves learned associations between
stimuli and responses.
“Little Albert” experiment – Watson attempted to
condition a phobia into an 11-month-old infant and
then attempted to decondition the phobia.
CS (white rat) w/ US (loud noise) caused UR
(startled response).
Joseph Wolpe




Applied classical conditioning procedures to
psychotherapy
The principle of reciprocal inhibition
Systematic desensitization
Other techniques based on classical conditioning:
counterconditioning; aversive counterconditioning;
flooding.
Operant Conditioning




Edward L. Thorndike – Law of Effect
B.F. Skinner – positive reinforcement; negative
reinforcement; punishment
Reinforcers – primary or secondary
Reinforcement schedules
Social Learning



We observe and learn from what we experience in
the social context by considering new information,
constructing meaning from it, and using it in future
interactions, frequently without receiving any overt
reinforcement.
Albert Bandura
John Dollard and Neal Miller
Albert Bandura


Social learning theory – based on the principle that
people learn through observation, imitation, and
modeling.
An individual can observe a model perform some
behavior, then imitate that behavior without
receiving any tangible reinforcement, thereby
demonstrating new learning even in the absence of
a contingency.
Bandura cont.




Observational learning: learning through passive
observation.
Modeling: demonstrating how a behavior is
performed so that it may be learned and passed
on.
Effective modeling: Attention; Retention;
Reproduction; Motivation
Modeling more effective: observers and models are
of similar demographics or have positive
interpersonal attributes
Bandura cont.

Self-efficacy: refers to an individual’s confidence in
his or her ability to perform a given behavior or
accomplish a given task.
The Dollard and Miller Approach




Influenced by the psychoanalytic, behavioral, and social
science
“Drive” or incentive theorists. Anxiety and psychological
disturbances were learned from experiences.
As people develop, they form habits that allow them to
respond predictably to social and other stimuli.
Three primary types of conflicts: approach-approach;
approach-avoidance; avoidance-avoidance.
Cognitive Development
8


How individuals construct meaning from their
experiences by using thought processes across
various developmental levels.
Cognitive complexity is strongly related to
reasoning and behavior
Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Theory






J. P. believed that growth in mental development
depended on one’s ability to order and classify
new information = organization
Adaptation
Assimilation
Accommodation
A schema
Equilibrium
Piaget’s stages of cognitive
development




Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2)
Preoperational stage (2 – 7)
Concrete operational stage(7 – 11)
Formal operational stage (11+ years)
Lev Vygotsky’s Cognitive
developmental theory




A Russian psychologist who developed a
constructionist, cognitive developmental theory that
integrated language as well as social and cultural
influences.
Cognitive progress facilitated by language
development and occurred in a social context.
Zone of proximal development
Scaffolding
Cognition and memory









Sensory memory
Short-term memory
Long-term memory
Encode
Retrieval theory
Interference theory
Retroactive inhibition
Proactive inhibition
Yerkes-Dodson law
Other important concepts in cognitive
development







Cognitive dissonance
Confirmatory bias
Attribution theory
Imaginary audience
Personal fable
Intelligence; crystallized intelligence
Creativity
Language development
9



Learning theory: children acquire language by
observing and imitating other who are using
language
Nativist approach (Noam Chomsky):the human brain
is genetically programmed to enable people to
create and understand language. Humans have the
capacity to learn any language through exposure.
Interactionist approach: a combination of learning
and nativist approaches is responsible for language
development through social and cultural influences.
Important concept of language
development












Psycholinguistics
Language
Semantics
Pragmatics
Phonology
Morphology
Dialect
Bocca’s area
Wernicke’s area
Arcuate fasciculus
Milestones in early language development
Communication disorders
Personality development
10





Sigmund Freud – Psychosexual theory
Erik Erikson – psychosocial theory
Loevinger – ego development theory
Maslow’s humanistic theory
Ethological theories of Lorenz, Bowlby, Ainsworth,
Harlow
Sigmund Freud (1925)





Libido
Id
Ego
Superego
Defense mechanisms: repression, regression,
displacement, projection, rationalization,
compensation, denial, reaction formation
Freud cont.



People must resolve various conflicts resulting from
the psychic or libidinal energy focused within
different parts of the body as one matures.
Fixation: an inability to resolve an important
conflict, either due to an overgratification or
undergratification of a need in any stage.
Oral stage; Anal stage; Phallic stage; Latency
stage; Genital stage
Psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson



Focused on an individual’s learned social interactions
within the environment as a key influence on ego
development
Erikson believed that personality continues to evolve
throughout the lifespan and that people can reconstruct
their personalities at any stage of the lifespan.
Basic trust vs. distrust; Autonomy vs. sham and doubt;
Initiative vs. guilt; Industry vs. inferiority; Identity vs. role
confusion; Intimacy vs. Isolation; Generativity vs.
stagnation; Integrity vs. Despair.
Ego development theory of Jane
Loevinger











An ego development stage theory that explained human personality
development progression and fixation:
Presocial stage
Symbiotic stage
Impulsive stage
Self-protective stage
Conformist stage
Self-awareness stage
Conscientious
Individualistic
Autonomous
Integrated
Humanistic theory of Abraham Maslow





Holistic and views humans as intrinsically good.
People make choices about themselves based on selfperceptions and perceived circumstances.
Hierachy of needs – humans have an innate desire for
self-actualization
Physiological, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
needs.
Self-actualization needs not usually met until middle
adulthood (over 60). Characteristics: acceptance of self
and others, spontaneity, autonomy, creativeness,
resistance to enculturation, problem centering, and
continued freshness of appreciation.
Ethological theories of Konrad Lorenz,
John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Harry
Harlow


Konrad Lorenz – experiments on imprinting; duck attaches to
first moving object it encounters after hatching; Imprinting is
irreversible and example of a critical period or sensitive
period.
John Bowlby –infants being born with an innate potential for
attachment. Infants have the ability to form a natural bond
with a caregiver, thus enabling the infant to explore the
environment without fear of abandonment. A failure to
attach to a caregiver early in life is believed to affect trust
and intimacy in latter development. Three stages in infants
exposed to prolonged separations: protest; despair;
detachment.
Cont.





Mary Ainsworth – four patterns of attachment:
Securely attached
Avoidantly attached
Ambivalently attached
Disorganized attachment
Cont.

Harry Harlow – experiments with infant rhesus
monkeys placed in cages with wire surrogate
mothers, one with a bottle to provide food and
another with a terry cloth covering (comfort and
warmth). Preferred contact comfort with the
terrycloth monkey.
Ethological theory



Is helpful in explaining two normal developmental
phenomena observed in human infants:
Stranger anxiety (6 months –fearful of presence of
strangers – enhanced visual acuity, onset of object
permanence, increasing cognitive awareness)
Separation anxiety (in infants 1 -2 years; extreme
distress when separation from a primary caregiver
occurs. Anxiety is short lived after the
disappearance of the caregiver.
Identity development






Identity means an understanding of oneself as a
separate, distinct individual and springs from a synthesis
of successive identifications with other people into a
consistent, coherent, and unique whole.
Student, athlete, peer/friend, family member
Normative identity
Deviant identity
Achieved identity
Ascribed identity
Sex role and gender role development





Sexual identity – biological features as determined by
chromosomal information
Gender identity – psychosocial awareness of one’s
maleness or femaleness and thus contains an
environmental or cultural component
Gender roles – socially defined behaviors associated
wit a particular sex
Androgyny – gender neutral concepts (everyone drives
cars, cleans living areas, establishes a career)
Gender role conflict – when an individual feels anxiety
and dissonance as previously held gender expectations
conflict with changing gender roles.
Social development



Prosocial behavior
Sociodramatic play
Parten (1933) described social play categories:
nonsocial activity; parallel play; associative play;
cooperative play.
Adjustment to Aging and Death







Disengagement theory
Activity theory
Atchley (1975) proposed four stages of retirement:
Preretirement
Immediately after retirement
Periods of enchantment
Reorientation
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross – on Grief





Shock and denial
Anger
Bargaining and guilt
Hopelessness
Acceptance
Moral development



Involves an individual’s growing ability to distinguish
right from wrong and to act in accordance with
those distinctions.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
– most influential
Kohlberg – see 3 levels and 6 stages
Carol Gilligan
Three stage theory:
1.
Orientation to Individual Survival
2.
Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
3.
Morality of Nonviolence
Jean Piaget’s on morality



1. Premoral stage
2. Moral realism stage
3. Moral relativism stage
Lifespan theories: Individual task
development and milestones





Developmental milestone approach by Arnold
Gesell
Robert Havighurst’s developmental task approach
Roger Gould’s adult developmental theory
Robert Peck’s phase theory of adult development
Daniel Levinson’s adult male development theory
Women’s development



Carol Tavris (1992) – The mismeasure of woman
Carol Gilligan (1982) – In a different voice,
Gail Sheehy (1976) – Passages: Predictable crises
in adult life.
Generational considerations in Human
Development





General Issue (GI) generation: 1891 – 1924
Silent Generation: 1925 – 1942
Baby Boomer Generation: 1943 -1960
Generation X: 1961-1981
Millennials (Generation Y): 1982 -2000
Family developments






Leaving home
Joining families through marriage
Welcoming children into the family
Raising adolescents
Launching
Later family life
Parenting influences




Authoritarian
Authoritative or democratic or egalitarian
Permissive or laissez-faire
Uninvolved
Divorce and remarriage


Maternal employment
Abuse
Crisis, resilience, and wellness






Crisis
ABC-C model of family crisis and stress (Hill, 1949)
Transcrisis
Burnout
Compassion Fatigue
Vicarious trauma
Risk and resiliency factors









The Search Institute (2005):
Support
Empowerment
Boundaries and expectations
Constructive use of time
Commitment to learning
Positive values
Social Competence
Positive Identity
Wellness






Refers to an integration of mind, body, and spirit
resulting in positive well-being.
Physical: exercise, nutrition
Essential: spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity,
self-care
Social: friendship, love
Coping: leisure, stress management, self-worth, realistic
beliefs
Creative: thinking, emotions, control, work, positive
humor
Disorders usually diagnosed in infancy,
childhood, or adolescents










Mental retardation
Learning disorders
Motor skills disorders
Pervasive developmental disorders
Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders
Tic disorders
Elimination disorders
Other disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescents
Separation anxiety disorder
See DSM 5 for other mental disorders

similar documents