Ethical Dilemma - Commonwealth Autism Service

Report
Ethical Considerations in
Behavior Analysis and
Autism Intervention
Christine M. Holland, MS BCBA
[email protected]
Objectives
• Discuss and define ethical behavior
• Identify and discuss the ethical philosophy of B.F. Skinner as
described in Skinner’s own writings and in the writings of others
•
Identify and discuss additional models for resolving ethical
dilemmas
•
Identify and describe additional resources that are available
specific to using behavior analysis in interventions for individuals
on the autism spectrum
• Analyze ethical dilemmas presented in written and/or video
vignettes and discuss solutions based on the “Guidelines for
Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts” and “BCBA &
BCaBA Behavior Analyst Task List”
Theories of Ethics
Deontological
Care Ethics
Virtue Ethics
Teleological
Utilitarianism
Divine Command Theory
http://youtu.be/rb8jSR2aMsE
Skinner’s
Analysis of
Values
Practical Ethics
and Ethical
Fitness
Existing Guidelines
for Behavior Analyst
and Autism
Practitioners
Defining Ethics and Ethical Behavior
The discipline
dealing with what is
good and bad and
with moral duty and
obligation
A set of principles of
right conduct. The
theory or a system
of moral value
Certain standards of
behavior are developed by
a culture and promote the
survival of that culture
-Skinner
The study of the
general nature of
morals and of the
specific moral choices
to be made by a
person
Behaviors, practices, and decisions
that address three basic and
fundamental questions: What is the
right thing to do? What is worth
doing? What does it mean to be a
good behavior analyst
-Cooper, Heron, Heward
Defining Ethics and
Ethical Behavior
Cooper Definition
What Is The Right
Thing To Do?
• Personal History
• Context of Practice
• Ethical Codes
What is Worth
Doing?
• Social Validity
• Cost-Benefit Ratio
• Current Situation
What Does It Mean
To Be A Good
Behavior Analyst
• Following Codes
• Following “Golden
Rule”
• Self Evaluation
Importance of Ethics in Behavior Analysis
Power of Science
Scope of Responsibilities
Vulnerability of Clients
B.F. Skinner’s Analysis of Values
Values are certain standards of
behavior that are developed
by a culture and promote the
survival of that culture
• B.F. Skinner
Radical Behaviorism
Radical Behaviorism
• A Science of
behavior
– Observable events
– Private Events
• Selection by
consequences
– Species
– Individual
– Cultural
Beyond Freedom & Dignity
Time Magazine Cover
September 20, 1971
Values As A Subject of Science
http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=Hj9oB4zpHww
Values as Subject of Science
3 Term Contingency
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
VS
Positive
Reinforers
Negative
Reinforcers
Skinner’s Analysis of Values
• Classes of Values or Goal
– Positively reinforcing to the
individual
– Positively reinforcing to others
– Positively reinforcing to the
culture
• Universal reinforcers?
Values and Verbal Behavior
Good
Ought
Bad
Should
Skinner’s Analysis of Values
• Ethical Injunctions
– Competing contingencies
• Criticism of Skinner’s view of Values
Hmm…
Application of Skinner’s
Analysis of Values
• Examine Existing Contingencies for Ethical
Behavior
•Self-Examination
Reviewing ethical Decisions
Recommendations
If you are reinforced by (X), you will
be reinforced by doing (Y) and the
reinforcement controlling this assertion
on my part is (Z).
Practical Ethics and Ethical Fitness
How Good People Make Touch Choices:
Resolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living
by Rushworth M. Kidder
®
Nature of Ethical Dilemmas
Right vs. Wrong
Violation of
Law
Departure
from Truth
Deviation from
moral rectitude
Nature of Ethical Dilemmas
Justice versus
Mercy
Short-term
versus longterm
Right
versus right
Individual
versus
community
Truth versus
loyalty
Existing Guidelines for
Behavior Analyst and Autism
Practitioners
“The behavior analyst has the potential to do great good
for clients and society by analyzing complex problematic
behaviors, finding humane and effective solutions,
implementing programs that work, and ensuring the least
restrictive, most effective evidence-based treatments
possible given limited resources.”
-Bailey & Burch 2011
Ethical Principles
of Psychologists
and Code of Conduct
By:
American Psychologist
Association
The Right to Effective
Behavioral Treatment
By: Association for Behavior
Analysis
The Right to
effective Education
By: Association for
Behavior Analysis
The BACB
Disciplinary
Standards
The BCBA and
BCaBA Behavior
Analyst Task
Lists
By: The Behavior
Analyst
Certification
Board
By: Behavior
Analyst
Certification
Board
Guidelines for
Responsible
Conduct for
Behavior Analysts
Revised July 2010
By: The Behavior
Analyst
Certification
Board
Additional Tools
• Ethics for Behavior Analysts: 2nd Expanded
For Issue by Jon Bailey and Mary Burch
Risk –Benefit
Analysis
Declaration of
Professional
Services
Additional Ethical Considerations in
Autism Intervention
• Autism Special Interest group (SIG)
Guidelines
• Qualifications to direct behavior analytic
program
• training necessary
• evidence of qualifications
• Additional considerations
• Task list for Board Certified Behavior
Analyst Working with Persons with
Autism
Additional Ethical Considerations in
Autism Intervention
• Recommendations for Evidence Based
Practice
National
Standards
Project
The National
Professional
Center on
Autism
Spectrum
Disorders
• Additional Resources
Association
for Science
in Autism
Treatment
Let’s Talk!
• Discuss possible reinforcers (positive
and negative) in each scenario
• Discuss relevant guidelines from the
Guidelines for Responsible Conduct
• Discuss other tools that may help with
the scenario

similar documents