Name: John Broadus Watson Birthdate: January 9, 1878 Died: September 25, 1958 Description: 1878 is the birthdate for John B. Watson. He is considered the father of Behaviorism – a dominant learning theory. Learning Theorist Learning Theorist Name: Jean Piaget Birthdate: August 9, 1896 Died: September 17, 1980 Description: His theories of cognitive development and knowledge would give rise to Constructivism. Piaget work placed great importance on the education of children. Name: Stereoscope Date: 1905 Description: Keystone View Company marketed these stereoscopes to schools and created hundreds of images that were meant to be used to illustrate points made during lectures. Learning Innovation Learning Theorist Name: Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner Birthdate: March 20, 1904 Died: August 18, 1990 Description: Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. Skinner called his particular brand of behaviorism "Radical" behaviorism . Name: Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, John Broadus Watson Date: Published and Public Address, 1913 Description: John B. Watson, who established the psychological school of behaviorism, promoted this change in psychology through his address, also an article, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, given at Columbia University and published in the Psychological Review in 1913. Learning Theory Learning Theory Name: The Behavior of Organisms, B. F. Skinner Date: Published May, 1938 Description: Skinner’s book set the bounds for the discipline that would come to be called the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB) and Behavior Analysis. Name: First large scale use of Educational Technology Date: 1940’s Description: The first large scale usage of new educational technologies can be traced to the United States WWII training of soldiers through training films and other facilitated materials. Learning Innovation Name: Programmed Instruction in Educational Technology. Date: 1950’s Description: Skinner’s work in behaviorism led to "programmed instruction" focusing on the formulation of behavioral objectives, breaking instructional content into small units and rewarding correct responses early and often. Learning Theory and Innovation Learning Theory Name: The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Date: Published 1956 Description: Bloom’s Taxonomy divides the cognitive domain into six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Learning Theory Name: The Cognitive Revolution Date: 1960s and 1970s Description: Since the very early beginning of the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brainbased learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. Cognitive science has also changed how educators view learning. Learning Theory Name: Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child, Jean Piaget Date: Published 1970 Description: Piaget's book, The Science of Education, is published. His Learning Cycle model helps to popularize discovery-based teaching approaches. Learning Theory Name: About Behaviorism, B. F. Skinner Date: Published 1974 Description: B. F. Skinner called his particular brand of behaviorism "Radical" behaviorism. Radical behaviorism is the philosophy of the science of behavior. It seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. Learning Innovation Name: Computer-based learning (CBL) Date: 1980’s – 1990’s Description: Frequently based on constructivist and cognitivist learning theories, these environments focused on teaching both abstract and domain-specific problem solving. Learning Theory Name: In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms, Jacqueline and Martin Brooks Date: Published 1993 Description: The Brooks describe constructivism, a view that learning best occurs through active construction of knowledge rather than its passive reception. This learning theory becomes very popular in the 90’s. Learning Innovation Name: The World-Wide Web Date: Mid-80s to Mid-90's Description: Digitized communication and networking in education started at this time. The speed at which learning and collaboration could commence among teachers and students increases dramatically.