Test what you know From Sections 1 & 2 Read the statements below and determine who or what is speaking – – – “One of Cuba’s greatest heros, I died fighting for its independence.” “I was the U.S. ship that Spain was accused of blowing up on 1898.” “We were the most famous groups of volunteers in the Spanish American War.” Chapter 7: Section 3 Roosevelt and Latin America Main Idea:The United States began to influence Latin America Bell ringer Activity Theodore Roosevelt often quoted a West African Proverb “Speak Softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.” Roosevelt’s big stick was naval power. It helped achieve his dream of a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The site was Panama, where Columbian diplomats agreed to lease a canal for a one time payment of $10 million and a yearly fee of $250,000. But the Columbian government rejected the sum of money as too little. In response, various groups supporting the canal staged a revolt. American marines landed from a ship offshore to prevent Columbian troops from stopping the rebels. Within 3 days newly independent Panama agreed to the original treaty, Review Questions How was naval power a “big stick”? The new canal would save ships traveling between the Atlantic and Pacific from having to go around South America. How would this be in American interest? After a victory in the Spanish American War, President McKinley wanted to restore and maintain order, so he set up governments on each island. Leonard Wood was appointed governor of Cuba During this time significant gains were made in understanding and curing Yellow Fever & within 6 months is was eliminated from Cuba Wood also oversaw the drafting of a new constitution in Cuba Although the United States agreed to recognize Cuba’s independence, it became concerned that other nations might want Cuba Because of this the U.S. forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment as part of its new constitution The Platt Amendment – – – – limited Cuba’s ability to trade with countries other than the U.S. gave the U.S. the right to be involved in Cuban Affairs Required Cuba to sell or lease land to the U.S. for bases Made Cuba a protectorate of the U.S. (a country that functions independently but is protected diplomatically or militarily by stronger country)) Cuba accepted the Platt Amendment U.S. troops withdrew Amendment was eventually repealed (in 1934) U.S. kept its lease on the naval base at Guatanamo Bay Governing Puerto Rico Puerto Rico was not a protectorate, it was governed as a territory A territory is governed more closely than a protectorate The Foraker Act of 1900 established that the United States would appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislature, Puerto Rican voters would elect the lower house In 1917 U.S Citizenship was granted to Puerto Ricans Allowed Puerto Rican voters to elect allthier own legislature In 1952 Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States Governs most of its own affairs, but the U.S. controls trade, immigration, and military affairs Reading Focus Question #1 How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico? – – Cuba was made a protectorate by the Platt Amendment Puerto Rico was made a territory, the Foracker Act allowed the U.S. to appoint a governor and upper house of the legislature, gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans The Panama Canal In the 1880’s a French company began building a canal across a 50 mile wide Isthmus in Panama Company eventually went bankrupt and abandoned the canal In 1902 the U.S. bought the rights to the French canal property and equipment Secretary of State John Hay drafted a treaty for permanent use of the land, but Columbia’s senate would not ratify it At the same time, Panamanian rebels were plotting to break away from Columbia President Roosevelt supported the revolution Why? One day after the revolution began, Panama claims its independence, the U.S. swiftly recognized Panama’s independence and a new treaty gave the United States a 10 mile wide piece of land on which to build a canal Work on the Panama Canal began in May 1904 Working conditions were harsh, there were shortages of labor and materials, there was a serious outbreak of yellow fever During the 1st month of construction almost the entire workforce was stricken with malaria To overcome Malaria and yellow fever, snitation workers drained swamps and standing water, cleared vegetation, spread oil on standing water, and bred spiders, ants and lizards Building of the Panama Canal required 44,000 workers, 60 giant steam shovels Reading Focus Question #2 How and why was the Panama Canal built? – – Was built as a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Was started by a French company and finished by the U.S. with 44,000 workers and 60 steam shovels What benefits did the U.S. receive from the Platt Amendment? How did Puerto Rico become a territory, while Cuba became a protectorate? What was the first attempt to build the canal? How did the United States secure the rights to build the Panama Canal? The Roosevelt Corollary After the Spanish American War, U.S. presidents started enforcing the Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. policy that was introduced in 1823, which said that further efforts by European governments to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the U.S. as acts of aggression requiring intervention. Europeans had invested great sums of money in Latin America during the Industrial Revolution Latin American countries were unable to pay back the investments U.S. became concerned that European countries would intervene in these countries to regain their money U.S responded to the threat by issuing the Roosevelt Corollary which pledged to use armed forced to prevent any European country from seizing land U.S took control of collecting customs duties for Dominican Republic The Roosevelt Corollary brought stability to the region and kept other nations out Latin American countries were beginning to be concerned and increasing U.S. involvement in their land Reading Focus Question # 3 What was the Roosevelt Corollary? – Doctrine that threatened use of U.S. military force to prohibit further European involvement in Latin America Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy Under President Taft, U.S. involvement in Latin America deepened using dollar diplomacy, promoting American economic interests in other countries Taft approved the U.S. buying the loans that Latin American countries owed to other countries Required at least one military intervention in Nicaragua President Taft was succeeded by President Woodrow Wilson who rejected the dollar diplomacy in favor of moral diplomacy, the use of persuasion and American ideals to advance the U.S. interests Reading Focus Question #4 How did President Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy – – Taft- used economic power Wilson-tried to nurture constitutional governments but used military force when necessary Review questions What does “speak softly and carry a big stick” mean? What financial situation made Latin American nations particularly vulnerable to forceful takeover? How did President Taft use dollar diplomacy?