Chapter 7: Section 3 Roosevelt and Latin America

Test what you know
From Sections 1 & 2
Read the statements below and determine
who or what is speaking
“One of Cuba’s greatest heros, I died fighting for
its independence.”
“I was the U.S. ship that Spain was accused of
blowing up on 1898.”
“We were the most famous groups of volunteers
in the Spanish American War.”
Chapter 7: Section 3
Roosevelt and Latin America
Main Idea:The United
States began to
influence Latin America
Bell ringer Activity
Theodore Roosevelt often quoted a West African Proverb
“Speak Softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.”
Roosevelt’s big stick was naval power. It helped achieve
his dream of a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. The site was Panama, where Columbian
diplomats agreed to lease a canal for a one time payment
of $10 million and a yearly fee of $250,000. But the
Columbian government rejected the sum of money as too
little. In response, various groups supporting the canal
staged a revolt. American marines landed from a ship
offshore to prevent Columbian troops from stopping the
rebels. Within 3 days newly independent Panama agreed
to the original treaty,
Review Questions
How was naval power a “big stick”?
The new canal would save ships traveling
between the Atlantic and Pacific from having
to go around South America. How would this
be in American interest?
After a victory in the Spanish American War,
President McKinley wanted to restore and
maintain order, so he set up governments on
each island.
Leonard Wood was appointed governor of
During this time significant gains were made
in understanding and curing Yellow Fever &
within 6 months is was eliminated from Cuba
Wood also oversaw the drafting of a new
constitution in Cuba
Although the United States agreed to
recognize Cuba’s independence, it became
concerned that other nations might want
Because of this the U.S. forced Cuba to
include the Platt Amendment as part of its
new constitution
The Platt Amendment
limited Cuba’s ability to trade with countries other
than the U.S.
gave the U.S. the right to be involved in Cuban
Required Cuba to sell or lease land to the U.S. for
Made Cuba a protectorate of the U.S. (a country
that functions independently but is protected
diplomatically or militarily by stronger country))
Cuba accepted the Platt Amendment
U.S. troops withdrew
Amendment was eventually repealed (in
U.S. kept its lease on the naval base at
Guatanamo Bay
Governing Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico was not a protectorate, it was
governed as a territory
A territory is governed more closely than a
The Foraker Act of 1900 established that the
United States would appoint Puerto Rico’s
governor and upper house of legislature,
Puerto Rican voters would elect the lower
In 1917 U.S Citizenship was granted to
Puerto Ricans
Allowed Puerto Rican voters to elect allthier
own legislature
In 1952 Puerto Rico became a self-governing
commonwealth of the United States
Governs most of its own affairs, but the U.S.
controls trade, immigration, and military
Reading Focus Question #1
How did the United States govern Cuba and
Puerto Rico?
Cuba was made a protectorate by the Platt
Puerto Rico was made a territory, the Foracker
Act allowed the U.S. to appoint a governor and
upper house of the legislature, gave U.S.
citizenship to Puerto Ricans
The Panama Canal
In the 1880’s a French company began building
a canal across a 50 mile wide Isthmus in
Company eventually went bankrupt and
abandoned the canal
In 1902 the U.S. bought the rights to the
French canal property and equipment
Secretary of State John Hay drafted a treaty
for permanent use of the land, but
Columbia’s senate would not ratify it
At the same time, Panamanian rebels were
plotting to break away from Columbia
President Roosevelt supported the revolution
One day after the revolution began, Panama
claims its independence, the U.S. swiftly
recognized Panama’s independence and a
new treaty gave the United States a 10 mile
wide piece of land on which to build a canal
Work on the Panama Canal began in May
Working conditions were harsh, there were
shortages of labor and materials, there was a
serious outbreak of yellow fever
During the 1st month of construction almost
the entire workforce was stricken with
To overcome Malaria and yellow fever,
snitation workers drained swamps and
standing water, cleared vegetation, spread
oil on standing water, and bred spiders, ants
and lizards
Building of the Panama Canal required
44,000 workers, 60 giant steam shovels
Reading Focus Question #2
How and why was the Panama Canal built?
Was built as a shorter route between the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans
Was started by a French company and finished
by the U.S. with 44,000 workers and 60 steam
What benefits did the U.S. receive from the
Platt Amendment?
How did Puerto Rico become a territory,
while Cuba became a protectorate?
What was the first attempt to build the canal?
How did the United States secure the rights
to build the Panama Canal?
The Roosevelt Corollary
After the Spanish American War, U.S.
presidents started enforcing the Monroe
The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. policy that
was introduced in 1823, which said that
further efforts by European governments to
colonize land or interfere with states in the
Americas would be viewed by the U.S. as
acts of aggression requiring intervention.
Europeans had invested great sums of
money in Latin America during the Industrial
Latin American countries were unable to pay
back the investments
U.S. became concerned that European
countries would intervene in these countries
to regain their money
U.S responded to the threat by issuing the Roosevelt
Corollary which pledged to use armed forced to
prevent any European country from seizing land
U.S took control of collecting customs duties for
Dominican Republic
The Roosevelt Corollary brought stability to the
region and kept other nations out
Latin American countries were beginning to be
concerned and increasing U.S. involvement in their
Reading Focus Question # 3
What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
Doctrine that threatened use of U.S. military force
to prohibit further European involvement in Latin
Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy
Under President Taft, U.S. involvement in
Latin America deepened using dollar
diplomacy, promoting American economic
interests in other countries
Taft approved the U.S. buying the loans that
Latin American countries owed to other
Required at least one military intervention in
President Taft was succeeded by President
Woodrow Wilson who rejected the dollar
diplomacy in favor of moral diplomacy, the
use of persuasion and American ideals to
advance the U.S. interests
Reading Focus Question #4
How did President Taft and Wilson reshape
U.S. diplomacy
Taft- used economic power
Wilson-tried to nurture constitutional governments
but used military force when necessary
Review questions
What does “speak softly and carry a big
stick” mean?
What financial situation made Latin American
nations particularly vulnerable to forceful
How did President Taft use dollar diplomacy?

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