U.S. History Unit 1 Review

35 Multiple Choice Questions
2 Short Answer Questions
Declaration of Independence
This was (essentially) our break up letter with England.
Thomas Jefferson was the Primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Below you can read the first 2 paragraphs… Unalienable Rights = Important
IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve
the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among
the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature
and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,
--That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,
laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to
them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
7 Principles of the Constitution +
 Federalism: Powers of government are divided between national (federal)
& state (local) governments
 Limited Government: Powers of federal government are limited to those
specifically provided in the Constitution
 Individual Rights: Rights you are born with. Rights that cannot be taken away
 Popular Sovereignty: The people hold supreme power
 Republicanism: A democratic government of representatives elected by the
people (we exercise republicanism by VOTING)
 Checks and Balances: Each branch has a way to “check” the other branch
 Separation of Power: Power of Federal government is divided between 3
branches (Legislative, Judicial, Executive)
 Amendments: Constitution can be amended to adjust with changing times
The Constitution
• The Supreme Law of the Land
• Living Document
• To originally ratify the constitution it took 9 of the 13 states to
agree to it (3/4 of the states)
• Only 27 Amendments have been added since it was signed
• First 10 Amendments are collectively known as The Bill of
How Long Are They In Office?
 House of Representatives:
Number of Representatives is based on the population of their
 President:
4 Years
Commander in Chief
First President: George Washington
Max of 10 years
 Senators:
2 Years
2 Per State
100 total as of today
6 Years
The Bill of Rights
 Was added to the U.S. Constitution to protect our individual liberties
 1st : Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press,
The Right of Assembly, The Right to Petition
2nd : A well-regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state
and for this reason people should have the right to bear arms.
3rd : Prohibits government from placing troops in people’s homes
without their permission.
4th : Added to protect individuals from “unreasonable” search and
seizures by government officials. If there is a reasonable expectation
of privacy, a judge must sign a “search warrant.”
5th : A citizen cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without
“due process of law.”
Must be indicted by a grand jury.
No Double Jeopardy
Cannot be forced to self-incriminate
Eminent Domain : Refers to the power of government over property in its
territory. They can take your private property but it shall not be taken without
just (or reasonable) compensation.
 6th : Guarantees a fair and impartial trial to all persons
accused of a crime; they must be told of the
charges against them; they have the right to a trial
by jury; and the right to a lawyer.
7th : Right to a trial by jury in civil disputes.
8th : Cannot require unusually high bail. Bans a court
from punishing someone in a cruel or unusual
9th : Just because the Constitution lists some specific
rights does not mean that citizens do not also
other rights.
10th : The federal government has only those powers
specifically given to it in the Constitution. All
powers are reserved to the states or the
After the Civil War a group of
amendments were passed.
 13th : Abolished slavery
 14th : Guaranteed all citizens “due process rights” and
“equal protection” of the laws from state
 15th : Prohibited denying individuals their voting
rights on the basis of race.
 These amendments gave us stepping stones when we
got to the Civil Rights Movement in our country!
Alexis de Tocqueville
 Egalitarianism: Society of equals
 Populism: Participation of the “common” people in
political life
 Liberty: “Freedom” / Protection against tyrannical
 Individualism: Government does not direct individual
activity in daily life
 Laissez Faire: Government takes a “hands-off” approach
People To Know
 John Hancock:
Signed the Declaration of Independence
President of the Continental Congress
Signature on the Declaration became a symbol of freedom in the
 Benjamin Rush:
Signed the Declaration of Independence
“Father of American Medicine”
Favored educating women and making a public university to
train public servants
 John Peter Muhlenberg:
Clergyman who recruited soldiers to fight against the British
Part of the “Black Regiment”
Rose to rank of general under George Washington
People To Know
 John Trumbull, Sr.:
Colonial Governor who sided with the colonies
Friends with George Washington
 John Witherspoon:
Signer of the Declaration of Independence
President of New Jersey College (Princeton)
 John Jay:
Helped write the Federalist Papers
First Chief Justice of Supreme Court
Negotiated boundary treaty with England
 Charles Carroll of Carrollton:
Signed the Declaration of Independence
One of the wealthiest men in the colonies

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