WHY IMPERIALISM? GALLERY WALK WHAT IS IMPERIALISM? • The practice of building an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations • In the mid to late 1800’s the U.S. moves away from a foreign policy of ISOLATIONISM (George Washington’s policy and advice) • New Foreign Policy = Imperialism LIST REASONS WHY NATIONS BECOME IMPERIALISTIC: (WHY WANT OTHER LANDS?) • • • • • • • • Natural Resources, raw materials More Land More Power Spread your religion and culture Military Need For trade reasons Competition with other nations More Wealth/Money STATION #1- SEWARD’S FOLLY This cartoon depicts Russia selling a large block of ice to the US for a little over $7 million. (2 cents an acre) The caption reads “Prepare for the heating team! Seward lays a great stock of Russian ice in order to cool down the Congressional majority” Thomas Nast was a famous cartoonist who shows Seward putting a “Russian” ointment on the Presidents head to sooth it and help him agree more with his purchase of the Alaskan territory. (Convince him) STATION #1 QUESTIONS • Who made the purchase of the Alaskan Territory? • Answer: William Seward, our Secretary of State, bought it for the US • Which nation was Alaska purchased from? • Answer: We bought it from Russia • How do you think American’s felt about the purchase of Alaska? Describe their feelings and why they felt this way. • Answer: Americans were not happy about this purchase and thought it was a big joke. They thought all we bought was a “big piece of ice” up in the artic and it was a big waste of money STATION #1 CONTINUED • Why did Seward want the Alaskan Territory? • Answer: He wanted the land and resources it would provide along with a place for our military. • Did Alaska become a US State? If so, which number? • Answer: Alaska will become a US state and it will be state number 49 when it becomes an official state STATION #2- A NEW NAVY FOR THE U.S. US organizing its large Naval fleet on Virginia shores in 1853. Japanese depiction of US naval fleet entering their ports in 1854. Very intimidating show of force. By the mid-1870’s the US Navy ranked twelfth largest and most powerful in the world. The US was motivated by its advances and began to build up its Navy more for future overseas use. By 1896, they had risen to have more than 10,000 American sailors in uniform and their Navy now ranked fifth in the world. Their new steel plated battle ships were all powered by steam. The expansion of the Navy was one sign that the US was becoming a world power. STATION #2- QUESTIONS • How big was the US navy in the mid 1870’s? • Answer: The US Navy was 12th largest and most powerful navy in the world. • By 1896, how large had the US navy grown? • Answer: By 1896, the US Navy had more then 10,000 sailors in uniform and had risen to the 5th most powerful in the world. STATION #2 CONTINUED • Why was having a large naval power important to nations at this time? Explain. • Answer: • Why might the US have had its naval ships enter a Japanese port in 1854? Make a prediction. • Answer: STATION #3- THE OPENING OF JAPAN (TREATY OF KANAGAWA) Japanese painting illustrating a US Naval ship as a sea monster that forced its ships into Japanese harbors. Stamp created by the US to celebrate the work of Commodore Perry and the US Navy in getting Japan to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa and open themselves up to trade with foreign nations. A Japanese illustration showing Commodore Matthew Perry giving an ultimatum to the Japanese emperor over trade issues. Americans wanted the Japanese to open their ports to foreign trade & to help shipwrecked sailors. Perry entered Tokyo harbor in 1853. He then asked that Japan follow its wishes and he would return in one year for an answer. A year later Perry returned with seven armed Naval ships. This show of aggression, intimidation, and force made the Japanese give in to the US demands. In 1854 the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed and Japan was open to trade. STATION #3- QUESTIONS • Why would the US be celebrating the Treaty of Kanagawa on a postage stamp? What did it accomplish? • Answer: We celebrated because this event helped to open up the United States to trade with Foreign Nations • View the second image at this station. How does this Japanese painting depict the US ship? How do you think the Japanese feel about the American presence at their shores? • Answer: The Japanese depict us as a monster. This shows that they did not like our navy being in their country and that they saw the United States as a scary threat to their people and nation. STATION #3 QUESTIONS CONTINUED • Who is Commodore Perry and how did he get Japan to agree to open up their country to trade? • Answer: Matthew Perry gave Japan and ultimatum. “You do this or else”. He threatened the Japanese with naval force if they did not do what he wanted. He gave them a year to think about it and showed up with a 7 armed ships. Japan gave into our demands. • Before the Treaty of Kanagawa, what happened to US shipwrecked soldiers in Japan? • Answer: Japan refused to help any soldiers before this time and had a policy of isolationism. STATION #4- HAWAIIAN PLANTERS REBEL Planters were interested in Hawaii due to its climate year round. In this environment farmers could grow crops at anytime of the year. The most profitable crops were pineapple, bananas, and sugar cane. The US began to extend its influence and control around the globe in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. They began with Alaska in the north and then laid claim to islands in the Pacific. First the Midway, then Hawaii. Annexing (taking control) of the Hawaiian Islands was good economically for growers. But it was also a strategic location in the middle of the Pacific for military bases and naval ports. A presence in the Pacific was also good for trade and protection. STATION #4- QUESTIONS • What interested US planters in the lands of Hawaii? • Answer: Planters were interested in Hawaii because of its year round climate for growing profitable crops like sugar, pineapples, and bananas. • What “theme” or vocabulary word is depicted in the cartoon image on this station? How does this cartoon make the US look? • Answer: The cartoon depicts the United States as an IMPERALISM Nation, as we are taking over new lands beyond our shores like Hawaii and other islands in the Pacific. STATION #4- CONTINUED • Why might the Hawaiian Islands have been attractive to the US government? Why was its location ideal? • Answer: The islands were attractive to the US government because it was good economically for some of our growers and provided a Pacific presence for trade and protection. It was also a strategic location to help our navy with ports and a base. STATION #5- ANNEXATION OF HAWAII This cartoon represents the US as a tyrant sitting on its throne upon the Hawaiian Islands. The US annexed Hawaii and overthrew its original traditional government. Cartoon from a US newspaper depicting the unhappiness of the Native Hawaiian people over becoming the 50th US state. Caption reads: “Meeting of Natives at Hilo, Island of Hawaii… Protest Against Annexation” Queen Liliuokalani was forced to step down from her throne as ruler of the Hawaiian Islands in 1893 in the midst of the Planters Rebellion. Soon after, the US annexed Hawaii as its 50th state. The Queen was disgusted by what she called “outright exploitation of her land and people” She felt the US used them to prosper economically from their land (farming) and for their Christian Missionaries to force their religion on the Natives. STATION #5- QUESTIONS • How does the cartoon in the first image depict the United States? Explain. • Answer: The first cartoon depicts the US as a mean monarch (king) sitting on his thrown trying to take over the Hawaiian Islands with force. • What is annexation? • Answer: To annex a territory is to basically just take it and add it onto to your nation without asking the people who live there what they want. STATION #5 CONTINUED • Why might the native Hawaiian people have been angered at the US missionaries? Explain. • Answer: The Hawaiian people were upset because the missionaries tried to make the natives give up their own culture and beliefs and become Christian. • What happened to Queen Liliuokalani? • Answer: The Queen was forced to step down and give up her thrown to the US planters that overthrew her government. STATION #5 CONTINUED • Did Hawaii become a US State? If so, what number? • Answer: Hawaii will eventually become a state and it will be number 50.