Chapter 20 The United States Looks Overseas

Chapter 20
The United States Looks Overseas
Key Terms for the Chapter
• Isolationism
– Avoiding involvement in other countries’ affairs
• Imperialism
– Building empires by imposing political and
economic control over peoples around the world
The Turner Thesis
• Frederick Jackson Turner
– Created idea that western frontier defined
American History
• expansionists believed that overseas was the
new frontier and would bring new riches and
Economic Growth
• Expansionists argued that future prosperity
depended on building up trade
• U.S. had a powerful industrial economy and
produced more than Americans would buy
Economic Growth
• There was a fear that if U.S. did not expand it
would be shut out of global markets and
denied raw materials
• Alfred T. Mahan stated that the key to strong
trade was a powerful navy
United States Looks Overseas
• Purchasing Alaska
– 1867 The United States purchased Alaska from
Russia for $7.2 million (about 2 cents an acre)
– Alaska was full of resources (gold and oil)
• Alaska Gold Rush of 1897-1898
Spreading American Values
• In the late 1800s many Americans believed
that Americans of the “Anglo-Saxon race”
were superior to “lesser races” in other
• Argument was Americans had a divine duty to
spread Christian values and western
civilization around the world.
Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
• Expansionists had interest in various Pacific
islands, and saw them essential for expanding
influence and trade
• Samoa
Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
• Samoa
– U.S. had interest in Samoa to use as coaling
stations for ships
• Other European countries also wanted Samoa and
Britain, Germany, and the U.S. almost went to war
– In 1899 the U.S. and Germany divided the islands
• People in Samoa had no say in the matter.
Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
• Hawaii
– U.S. saw Hawaii as a military outpost in Pacific
– 1893 American planters and 50 U.S. Marines
overthrew Queen Liliuokalani.
• President Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii
because the revolt had been illegal
– on July 7, 1898 Hawaii became a territory of U.S.
when it was annexed by President William
• Hawaii
Carving Up China
• Late 1800s China lost a war and European
powers wanted to take advantage of China’s
– European power and Japan started dividing China
into spheres of influence (areas where another
nation has economic and political control)
Carving Up China
• At first, U.S. were not part of the activity, but
U.S. officials feared they would be excluded
from trading with China
– Secretary of State John Hay called on nations to
keep an “open door” policy in China.
Carving Up China
• Boxer Rebellion
– A secret Society called Righteous and Harmonious
Fist was formed to try and combat foreigners in
• Became known as Boxers because of their ceremonial
exercises that resembled shadowboxing
– In spring of 1900 the Boxers began a rebellion to
expel foreigners
Carving Up China
• The boxers attacked and killed westerners and
Chinese Christians.
• European powers and the U.S. sent in 18,000
troops with modern weapons and crushed the
The Spanish-American War
• Cuba had been under Spanish control since
• After Centuries of being under Spain’s harsh
control Cuban’s started to rebel
– First rebellion started in 1868 and lasted 10 years,
but was unsuccessful
The Spanish-American War
• Cubans started another rebellion in 1895
• To stop the revolt the Spanish began a policy
of reconcentration (movement of large
numbers of people into detention camps for
military or political reasons)
– 200,000 Cubans would die in these camps due to
poor sanitation and starvation
The Spanish-American War
• Cubans, led by Jose Marti, asked for help from
the U.S.
– Marti was a leader of the rebels, but was killed in
Cuba before he was able to see Cuba free from
Spanish rule
The Spanish-American War
• Many Americans wanted to help the Cuban
rebels, but U.S. government was resistant to
send troops
• Americans wanted to help Cuba to protect
their investments
– Americans had over $50 million in sugar
plantations, railroads, and iron mines
Yellow Journalism
• yellow journalism- A sensational style of reporting
that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news
The Spanish-American War
• Newspapers swayed public opinion towards
war by using Yellow Journalism
– Led by Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and
William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal
The Spanish-American War
• U.S. declares war
-February 15, 1898 the Maine sinks and the United
States declares war on Spain
Spanish-American War
• The U.S. Goes to War
– April 20, 1898 the U.S. declares war on Spain
– The first main battle of the war took place in the
• May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a small
fleet of ships to Manila Bay and sank the entire Spanish
• The U.S. did not lose a single ship or life
Spanish-American War
• The Filipinos were also fighting for
independence from Spain
– Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of the Filipino
– Instead of giving independence to the Filipinos the
U.S. took control of the islands
Spanish-American War
• War in the Caribbean
– Most of the fighting took place around Santiago
and at sea
Spanish-American War
• War in the Caribbean
– U.S. troops were poorly trained, but eager to fight
• One of the best known units was the Rough Riders,
which was led by Theodore Roosevelt
• Roosevelt led a successful charge up San Juan hill,
which became the most
celebrated event of the war
Spanish-American War
• Once Spain surrendered Cuba, American
troops invaded and quickly took control of
Puerto Rico
Spanish-American War
• December 1898, a treaty was signed
– Cuba received its independence
– Puerto Rico, Philippines, islands of Guam, and
Wake islands became territories of the U.S.
The United States and Latin America
• Panama Canal
– The Isthmus of Panama was chosen because it
was only 50 miles wide
– perfect location to shorten trips from the West
Coast to the East Coast
The United States and Latin America
• U.S. offered Columbia $10 million and
$250,000 yearly rent to build the canal
– Columbia did not accept the deal
The United States and Latin America
• Panamanians started a revolution against
– U.S. sent gunboats and Marines to support
– Panama gains its freedom and the U.S. received
the land to build the canal
“Gun Boat Diplomacy”
The United States and Latin America
• Fighting Disease
– First obstacle to building the canal was
overcoming diseases
• Malaria and Yellow Fever (carried by mosquitoes)
• William C. Gorgas
The United States and Latin America
• Constructing the Canal
– Construction involved three main tasks
• Cut through a mountain
• Dam a river
• Build locks
The United States and Latin America
• Canal Was finished August 15, 1914 (six
months ahead of schedule)
The United States and Latin America
• Wielding a “Big Stick” in Latin America
– Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
• It was the job of the U.S. to protect the Western
Hemisphere from European nations
• When neighbors of the U.S. got into disputes with
foreign nations, the U.S. had the right to intervene and
restore order
The United States and Latin America
• William Howard Taft believed in dollar
– Taft wanted bankers and businesses to invest in
Latin America
– Dollar Diplomacy led to many military
interventions because the U.S. had to protect its
The United States and Latin America
• Relations With Mexico
– 1911 Mexico entered into a violent revolution
– President Woodrow Wilson believed U.S. foreign
policy should support democracy throughout the
world, and hoped Mexico would develop its own
democratic government
The United States and Latin America
• The United States had trouble staying out of
the conflict
– 1914 an incident in Tampico, Mexico led to U.S.
sailors being arrested
– Francisco Villa (Pancho Villa) kept entering New
Mexico and raiding towns. (Killed 18 Americans in
one raid)

similar documents