US Foreign Policy in the late 1800s and 1900s NEW UNIT Essential Vocabulary Foreign Policy- the set of goals, principles, and practices that guide a nation in its relations with other nations. example: Washington’s Farewell Address 1796 “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world” - Shapes US foreign policy for the next century Domestic Policy- is the set of laws and regulations that a government establishes within a nation’s borders examples: laws and regulations of business, education, energy, health care, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare What are the tools of foreign policy? 1. Diplomacy (conducting negotiations) 2. Financial aid (grants, loans), other economic methods (embargoes, sanctions) 3. Threat or use of armed forces Who leads US foreign policy? The president, advised by the Secretary of State and the State Dept. –Congress also has power to approve treaties and vote on foreign policy issues. See: http://www.state.gov/secretary/ Essential Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Back to Washington- who established 2 key foreign policy principles 1. Neutrality- refusing to take sides among warring nations example: 1793, refused to take sides in war between Great Britain and France 2. Unilateralism- do not seek either military or political alliances with other countries, “going it alone” alliance=agreement or friendship between two or more parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. Essential Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Overall US foreign policy of isolationism through the 19th century Isolationism- a government policy of not taking part in economic and political alliances or relations with other countries This policy shifts to a policy of expansion and imperialism, or empire building, near the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, and that’s what we will be studying this unit! Manifest Destiny? Major territorial expansions -1803 Louisiana Purchase -1819 purchase of Florida from Spain -1845 settled border in Pacific Northwest -1867 purchase of Alaska from Russia -1845 annexation of Texas (annexation: taking control of a territory and adding it to a country) -1846 Mexican War- settles southern US border, recognition of annexation of TX, Mexico cedes US region from TX to CA, US pays Mexico $15 million US Territorial Expansion So the US is expanding its national territory, but also expanding its influence in other countries- President James Monroe made a bold foreign policy speech to Congress on December 2nd, 1823, that signified a major departure from past US isolationism. The principles he laid out in the speech would become known as…. MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 “The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers…” What does this mean?????? -Monroe Doctrine warned European powers to stay out of the Western hemisphere -Set up 2 policies: -Non-colonization -Non-interference Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine laid the framework for future global interventions, and was used to increase US influence in Latin America and the Caribbean. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJX5UQnFCBw&feature=related This increasing US influence and power on the global scene was not what all Americans wanted though…. The Great Debate: to be or not to be imperialist? Americans debated over support of imperialist foreign policies But WAIT! What exactly does imperialism mean???? Imperialism: one nation extending its influence over another nation or territory either directly by military conquest or indirectly by exerting control over the other nation’s political or economic affairs. But how does imperialism work? Imperialism is a relationship between two nations or territories in which: 1. one nation has economic and political control over the other. 2. the ruling nation’s purpose is to extend its power by acquiring and exploiting territory or natural resources. 3. the ruling nation intends the relationship to be permanent. 4. the involvement of the ruled nation is involuntary. IMPERIALISM • Should the US have adopted a foreign policy of imperialism in the late 19th century and the 20th century? -We’ll learn about different foreign policy decisions and events to help us form an argument in response to this question The Paris Peace Treaty-1898 Ends the Spanish-American war US gains control over Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Guam Spain sells the Philippines to the US for $20 million Teller Amendment: was passed when Congress declared war and prevented the US from taking control of Cuba- but did not apply to the Philippines. Results of the Spanish American War • Paris Peace Treaty gave Cuba Independence, but U.S. Stays in Cuba to restore order and set up a military government • After 4 years U.S. withdraws troops- 1902, but only after Cuba added certain provisions to their constitution to protect American interests The Platt Amendment Allows U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs and buy or lease land for naval bases -Guantanamo Bay naval base Guantanamo Bay later on used as a detainment center established in 2002 by the Bush Administration to hold detainees from the war in Afghanistan and later Iraq (enemy combatants) President Obama planned to close Guantanamo Bay detainment center by late 2010- problems with Congress wanting to block the transfer of the detainees to U.S. facilities=still not closed! US in the Philippines After the debate on imperialism and annexation, the U.S. ratifies Paris Peace Treaty- gain control of the Philippines Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo calls for independence- he helped the U.S. during Spanish American war and claimed the U.S. promised freedom to the Philippines Filipinos write constitution and elect Aguinaldo president- U.S. refused to recognize new government War in the Philippines Feb. 1899 fighting broke out- U.S. sends troops to put down revolt (Filipinos use guerrilla tactics, U.S. responds with brutal force including civilian prison camps) After 3 years of fighting war is over- more than 200,000 Filipinos and about 5,000 Americans had died- US had also spent about $400 million. U.S. sets up central government and would control the islands until granting them independence in 1946 Future US President Taft William Howard Taft Taft becomes governor of the Philippines in 1901- he will later on become president of the US He wants to help the island recover and tried to win Filipino support Although he used methods such as jailing dissidents and censoring the press, he also extended limited self rule and started building roads, schools, bridges… Imperialism in China? The U.S. and China Spheres of influence and the Open Door Policy: Great Britain, France, US, Japan, Germany, and Russia split China into areas where they can have influence and control the trade. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wFjjdMHv2A& NR=1 Who was the Open Door Policy most beneficial for?