Spanish American War Power Point

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The Spanish American War
April 25, 1898 – August 12, 1898
(3 months, 2 weeks and 4 days)
In 1823, the United States issued the
Monroe Doctrine
The United States would no
longer tolerate colonization
of North or South America.
Any such colonization would
be treated as an act of
aggression against the U.S.
The doctrine also stated that the U.S. would not
interfere with existing colonies or the internal
affairs of European nations.
Cuba Libre
The Cuba Libre movement was the group within
Cuba that wanted independence from Spain. Prior
to U.S. military involvement, Cuba Libre opened
offices in Florida and New York in order to smuggle
weapons and to gain U.S. support for their cause.
Protestants and Rural Democrats
supported the movement, but U.S.
businesses felt it best to ignore the cause.
Overall, there was not much early interest in
the U.S. for empire building, but other nations
had expanded their over seas powers (Britain,
France, Germany and Japan).
The Ten Years War
1868-1878
American opinion began to change during
and just after Cuba Libre made its first major
move for independence.
The Spanish authorities
sent General Valeriano
Weyler to quell the
rebellion by cutting off
military supplies to the
rebels. Weyler also forced
Cubans to concentration
areas close to Spanish
military compounds.
President McKinley (1897-1901
25th president of the United States (1897-1901)
39th Governor of Ohio (1892-1896)
McKinley volunteered for
the 23rd Ohio infantry
during the Civil War, he
was trained as a lawyer,
and was a Republican.
U.S. President McKinley (1897-1901) saw
Weyler’s efforts as barbaric and publically
denounced the Spanish efforts as
“extermination”.
However, it is also true that
McKinley, a Civil War
veteran, wished to avoid
conflict with Spain. His
statements may have been
made to satisfy an
outraged American public.
Spain responded to
American criticism…
Prime Minister Canovas
del Castillo claimed that
Cuba was not a colony,
but a province of Spain.
Del Castillo was assassinated in 1878
leaving Spain in political turmoil. Cuba’s
future became even less certain.
Weyler’s brutal methods, del
Castillo’s assassination, and
McKinley’s statements led to
a greater interest in the
Cuban cause.
Yellow Journalism
American newspaper publishers such as Joseph
Pulitzer of the New York World and William
Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal took
advantage of the situation to sell newspapers.
These publishers exploited
American outrage and made the
Spanish look monstrous. This type
of journalism that exploits emotion
to sell papers came to be known as
“Yellow Journalism”
A cartoon
from Puck
(a humor
magazine)
in 1888
So Close to Peace…
President McKinley wanted to
end the fighting in Cuba
peacefully and quickly. He sent
Stewart Woodford to Spain to
negotiate an end to the conflict.
Woodford met with Praxedes
Sagasta (who had replaced del
Castillo) and negotiated
Cuban autonomy. Autonomy
was scheduled to begin on
January 1, 1898.
Within days of Cuban autonomy, the U.S. sent the
USS Maine in response to unrest. Spanish officers
were causing trouble in response to newspaper
criticism of Weyler’s policies.
On February 15th, 1898, the Maine sank
after a mysterious explosion in Havana
Harbor. 266 sailors were killed. Although
the cause of the explosion was never
made clear, McKinley was forced by
public opinion to act.
Publishers Pulitzer and Hearst stated in their
papers that the Maine was sank by the Spanish,
but no solid proof has ever been presented.
The U.S. Goes to War
April of 1898, McKinley was forced to
ask Congress for the ability to send
troops into a conflict against Spain.
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt was
Assistant Secretary of the
Navy 1897-1898. He was
a supporter of war with
Spain even though the
president wanted to
avoid conflict.
Ten days after the Maine was sunk,
Roosevelt called the Navy to prepare for
war, arranged for munitions and supplies,
and asked Congress for the power to
recruit as many sailors as he wanted
•
•
•
•
26th President of the U.S. (1901-1909
25th Vice President of the U.S. (1901)
33rd Governor of New York (1899-1900)
Assistant Secretary to the Navy (1897-1898)
• Progressive Republican
• Resigned from the Navy to lead the Fir
U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment durin
the Spanish American War
• He was nicknamed “Teddy” but
preferred to be called “Colonel”
• His distant cousin, Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, would become the 32nd
president of the U.S.
Roosevelt as President, after the war
Annexation of The Philippines
Commodore George Dewey led the U.S. navy to a victory
over the Spanish in the Philippines. Starting with a victory
over the Spanish in Manila Bay, Filipino and American
forces worked together to oust the Spanish
However, after the Americans took the capitol
of Manila, they refused to allow Filipino troops
into the city. The U.S. had simply replaced
Spanish rule over the Philippines.
The Philippines became a significant
Naval base as the U.S. grew as a world
power. However, the takeover led to
another conflict. The Americans won
the Philippine-American War in 1901.
The Philippines were granted
independence from the U.S. after WWII.
Annexation of Guam
Captain Henry Glass led
several ships to Guam in order
to capture it from the
Spanish. The Spanish soldiers
were unaware that war had
been declared.
The Spanish were out of gunpowder when
the Americans arrived and Fort Santa Cruz
was taken without incident in 1898.
Today Guam is still a U.S. territory and their economy
depends on tourism and the U.S. armed forces.
Cuba
Cuba fell to the Americans, and in 1902, Cuba
was granted independence. There were
several conditions to Cuban independence
listed later, but an American naval presence
was a requirement.
Before independence, Cuba and the United States
agreed to keep an American naval presence in the area
to protect Cuba. This led to a naval station at
Guantanamo Bay. In 1934 the lease became perpetual,
and the U.S. maintains control of the bay today, even
after the Cuban Communist Revolution.
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico was under blockade during the war and was
eventually invaded. Puerto Rico is still a U.S. territory today.
The idea of statehood for Puerto Rico has gained momentum
at times, but it is currently not a state.
By August of 1898, Spain had lost all of its
colonies (not including those in Africa) to the
United States. The Spanish navy had been
defeated in both the Atlantic and Pacific.
Spain asked for peace and fighting officially ended on
August 12th.
The Treaty of Paris
The formal peace treaty was signed on
December 10th, 1898, in Paris, France.
Cuba was granted independence in 1902 from the
United States Military Government (USMG).
However, the U.S. se several conditions…
• Cuba was prohibited from making treaties
with other countries.
• The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in
Cuban affairs
• The U.S. gained a perpetual lease of
Guantanamo Bay

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