U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Overview

Report
U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen
and Fuel Cells Overview
Ohio Fuel Cell Symposium
Elyria, OH
6/11/2014
1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Greg Kleen
Education and Outreach Lead
Fuel Cell Technologies Office
U.S. Department of Energy
eere.energy.gov
“All of the Above” for Sustainable
Transportation
- EERE Technology Offices
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Including stationary power
•
•
•
•
Efficiency Improvement
Fuel Diversification
Domestic & Renewable
Sources
Reduced GHG
Vehicles
Bioenergy
National Energy Goals & Climate Action Plan
Reduce net oil imports by 50% by 2020, compared to 2008
Reduce GHG emissions >80% below 2005 levels by 2050
2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Worldwide Investment & Interest Are
Strong and Growing
Interest in fuel cells and hydrogen is global, with more than $1 billion in public
investment in RD&D annually.
Worldwide fuel cell markets continue to grow
(~30,000 units shipped in 2012; ~35% increase over 2011)
Fuel Cell Systems Shipped
Fuel Cell Systems Shipped
by Application, World Markets: 2008-2012
by Key Countries of Manufacture: 2008-2012
35,000
35,000
30,000
(Systems Shipped)
(Systems Shipped)
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
5,000
-
2008
2009
Stationary
2010
Transportation
2011
2012P
Portable
2008
United States
2009
Germany
2010
South Korea
2011
Japan
2012P
All Others
Sources: Navigant Research, DOE Fuel Cells Market Report
3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Overview
Fuel Cells – An Emerging Global Industry
Source: Clean Energy
Patent Growth Index
Fuel Cell Patents Geographic
Distribution 2002-2012
Japan
33%
United
States
44%
Korea
7%
Top 10 companies for fuel cell patents: GM, Honda,
Toyota, Samsung, UTC Power, Nissan, Ballard, Panasonic,
Plug Power, Delphi Technologies
•
•
Germany
6%
France
2%
Taiwan
2%
Canada
2%
Other
3%
Great
Britain
1%
Clean Energy Patent Growth Index[1] shows growth in all clean energy technology patents
More than 1,000 fuel cell patents issued in 2012
[1] http://cepgi.typepad.com/heslin_rothenberg_farley_/2013/03/clean-energy-patent-growth-index-2011-year-in-review.html
4 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Fuel cells in the spotlight- examples
President Obama inspects a fuel cartridge while
at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology.
Business case is emerging for fuel
cell forklifts and ground support
equipment
5 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Fuel cells in the spotlight- examples
Hydrogen fuel cell powers remote camera at
NASCAR event
Hydrogen fuel cell powers lights
at entertainment industry events
6 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles at U.S.
Auto Shows
FCEVs on display at North
American auto shows.
Honda Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
To be launched in California in
Summer 2014—lease includes
free H2 and maintenance.
Toyota Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
7 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
DOE Program:
RD&D to Deployments
DOE R&D
• Reduces cost and improves
performance
Examples of progress:
Transportation Fuel Cell System Cost
- projected to high-volume (500,000 units per year) -
Status:
$55/kW
(high vol)
DOE Demonstrations
& Technology Validation
• Validate advanced
technologies under realworld conditions
• Feedback guides R&D
Target:
$30/kW
Deployments
• DOE Recovery Act
and Market
Transformation
Projects
• Government Early
Adoption (DoD, FAA,
California, etc.)
• Tax Credits: 1603, 48C
Recovery Act & Market
Transformation Deployments
 Reduced cost of fuel cells 50%
since 2006
 2020 target $40/kW, ultimate target
$30/kW
Demonstrated >180 FCEVs, 25
stations, 3.6 million miles traveled
Examples—validated:
• 59% efficiency
• 254 mile range
(independently validated
430-mile range)
• 75,000-mi durability
Demonstrated world’s first tri-gen*
station (250 kW fuel cell on biogas,
 Reduced cost of electrolyzer
stacks 60% since 2007
100 kg/d of H2)
Program also includes enabling activities
such as codes & standards, analysis, and
education.
Nearly 1,600 fuel cells
deployed
*Stationary fuel cell providing heat, hydrogen, and power.
8 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Fuel Cell Cost Reduction
Projected highvolume cost of fuel
cells has been
reduced to $55/kW
(2013)*
• More than 30%
reduction since
2008
• More than 50%
reduction since
2006
*Based on projection to high-volume manufacturing (500,000
units/year) and assuming Pt price is $1,500/troy ounce. The projected
cost status is based on an analysis of state-of-the-art components that
have been developed and demonstrated through the DOE Program at the
laboratory scale. Additional efforts would be needed for integration of
components into a complete automotive system that meets durability
requirements in real-world conditions.
9 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Hydrogen Production - Strategies
Technology Readiness of DOE Funded Production Pathways
Central
Established
Industrial Process
Biomass
Gasification
Distributed
Today - 2015
Estimated Plant
Capacity (kg/day)
10 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
High-temp
Electrolysis
Coal Gasification
With CCS
Natural Gas
Reforming
Natural Gas
Reforming
NE
FE
Electrolysis
(solar)
Electrolysis
(wind)
2015-2020
Electrolysis
(Grid)
Bio-derived
liquids
50,000 100,000
PEC
Photobiological
2020-2030
Fermentation
Biomass pathways – mid term
Up to
1,500
STCH
≥500,000
solar pathways- longer term
P&D Subprogram R&D efforts
successfully concluded
FE, NE: R&D efforts in DOE Offices of
Fossil and Nuclear Energy, respectively
eere.energy.gov
Hydrogen Production Strategies
Projected High-Volume Cost of Hydrogen Production for Different Pathways
Goal:
Develop technologies
to produce hydrogen
from clean, domestic
resources at a
delivered and
dispensed cost of $2$4/gge H2
• Cost ranges are shown in 2007 dollars, based on projections from H2A analyses, and reflect variability in major feedstock pricing and a bounded range for capital cost estimates.
• Projections of costs assume Nth-plant construction, distributed station capacities of 1,500 kg/day, and centralized station capacities of ≥50,000 kg/day.
11 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Hydrogen Delivery
Station costs dominate delivery costs—key focus area.
Refueling Station Cost Breakdown**
*
Electrical
3%
Dispenser
5%
Remainder of
Station
7%
Refrigeration
8%
Compression
53%
The use of 350 bar tube trailers has
led to lower station costs, however
they still account for >50% of the
total projected delivery cost.
Storage
24%
Delivery Focus
 Identify cost drivers for H2 delivery
in early market applications
 Evaluate options to improve station
* Details for the high volume cost projection assumptions can be found in
Record 13013
**Based on HDSAM (v2.3) analysis assuming 10% market penetration in a city
with a population of 1.5M and 2011 technology
12 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
compressor reliability
 Investigate the role of higherpressure tube trailers in reducing
station costs
eere.energy.gov
Hydrogen Storage
Cost Reduction for
Hydrogen Adsorption Systems
Start Time to Full Flow
(-20°C)
Cost reduction
Wells-to-Power Plant
Efficiency
Strategic Analysis
3X increase in tensile strength demonstrated
in C-fiber from melt-spun PAN precursor (ORNL)
Launched open source database*
on Hydrogen Storage Materials
Properties
(http://hydrogenmaterialssearch.govtools.us/)
* Included in President’s Materials Genome Initiative,
http://www.whitehouse.gov/mgi
13 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Enabling Early Markets
Deployments help catalyze market penetration and ensure continued technology
utilization growth while providing data and lessons learned.
Leveraging DOE Funds:
10,000
Government as “catalyst” for market
success of emerging technologies.
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
DOE cost-shared
deployments led
to >5X additional
purchases and
orders.
Lift
Trucks
~9,000 ADDITIONAL FUEL CELL LIFT TRUCKS
AND BACKUP POWER UNITS PLANNED OR
INSTALLED with NO DOE funding
Examples of industry* sectors in DOE ARRA projects
• Telecommunications (e.g. AT&T, PG&E. Sprint, etc.)
• Distribution Centers/Warehouses (e.g. FedEx, Genco,
Sysco, Wegmans, Whole Foods, etc.)
4,000
3,000
Backup
Power
2,000
1,000
Lift Trucks
BU Power
0
Cost Share
Deployments ~1,600
14 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Additional Purchases
without DOE Funding
~9,000
*Provided as examples and not intended as endorsement
eere.energy.gov
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Initiatives
at the State Level
Several states—including California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Ohio, New York, and South
Carolina—have major hydrogen and fuel cell programs underway.
8 states sign MoU to put 3.3M zeroemission vehicles on roads by 2025
States include California, Connecticut, Massachusetts,
Maryland, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, & Vermont
• Represents a new vehicle market penetration of ~15%
California
FCEVs and Fuel Cell Buses
• > 560 vehicles in operation
since 1999 — ~230 currently
operating
• > 6 million miles driven
• > 1 million passengers on fuel
cell buses
H2 Station Investment
• $51.5M invested (CARB and
CEC)
• ~$13M invested by SCAQMD
• ~$29.9M available
(CEC PON 13-607)
• $20M planned for 14/15 (CEC)
• $20M annually thru 2023 for at
least 100 stations (AB8)
15 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Northeast
(e.g. MA, NY, CT)
Preliminary Plans:
3 phase plan
modelled by CCAT
for the development
of hydrogen
infrastructure and
deployment of fuel
cell electric vehicles
(FCEVs) in the north
eastern coastal
metro centers.
Hawaii
Agreement signed by 12 stakeholders—including GM, utilities,
hydrogen providers, DOD, DOE—to establish hydrogen as a
major part of the solution to Hawaii’s energy challenges.
•15 GM FCEVs currently in demonstrations with military
• Renewable hydrogen (from
geothermal and wind energy) will
be used for buses
Hydrogen Stations in Planning /
Development Stage - OAHU
• Goals include a public access
nascent refueling infrastructure
on Oahu by 2015 to support initial
deployments of government and
industry FCEV fleets
eere.energy.gov
Co-Launched Public-Private Partnership
Mission: To promote the commercial introduction and widespread adoption of FCEVs across
America through creation of a public-private partnership to overcome the hurdle of establishing
hydrogen infrastructure.
Current partners include (additional in process):
16 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Future Directions- Energy Systems
Integration Facility (ESIF)
Future directions include increased cross-cutting activities and collaboration such as through DOE’s new
national asset for energy systems integration research, development, and testing
www.nrel.gov/esif
17 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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Hydrogen Safety
•
•
Safety Information helps guide R&D.
It is critical to collect and disseminate
relevant information.
Two Looks at H2Incidents.org
210 Lessons Learned Events in "H2Incidents.org"
Examples:
Piping (36)
Valve (36)
Flexible Tubing (8)
Gasket (6)
Bolts (6)
• Trained > 26,000 firstresponders and code
officials on hydrogen
safety and permitting
through on-line and inclassroom courses
18 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Announced by the
U.S. Department
of Energy
September 2013
eere.energy.gov
FCTO Newsletter
Visit FCTO’s website at hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov
Sign up for the monthly newsletter at
http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/fuel-cell-technologies-office-newsletter
19 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
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FCTO Webinars
Check out the most recent webinars at
http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/2014-webinar-archives
20 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Energy 101: Fuel Cells
See Google+ Hangout discussion at:
http://www.energy.gov/articles/live-discussion-energy-101-fuel-cells
21 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Key Reports
Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products
Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program
By PNNL, http://www.pnl.gov/
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pathways_2013.pdf
The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013:
Reliability, Resiliency & Savings
By FuelCells2000, http://www.fuelcells.org
See report: http://www.fuelcells.org/pdfs/2013BusinessCaseforFuelCells.pdf
State of the States 2013: Fuel Cells in America
By FuelCells2000, http://www.fuelcells.org
See report:
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/state_of_the_states_2
013.pdf
Annual Merit Review - Upcoming Dates
June 16-20, 2014 - Washington, D.C.
June 8-12, 2015 - Arlington, VA
June 6-10, 2016 - Washington, D.C.
June 5-9, 2017 - Washington, D.C.
http://annualmeritreview.energy.gov/
22 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Future Plans - Summary
Continue to promote and strengthen R&D activities
– Hydrogen, fuel cells, safety, manufacturing, etc.
– Cost, performance, durability need to be addressed
Conduct strategic, selective demonstrations of innovative
technologies
– Industry cost share and potential to accelerate market
transformation
Continue to conduct key analyses to guide RD&D and path forward
– Life cycle cost; economic & environmental analyses, etc.
Leverage activities to maximize impact
– U.S. and global partnerships
– H2USA: Public-Private partnership to enable widespread
commercialization of hydrogen vehicles in the United States
23 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov
Examples of DOE-funded Partners and
Locations – Fuel Cell Technologies Program
24 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Source: US DOE 12/2010
eere.energy.gov
Thank You
[email protected]
hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov
25 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office
eere.energy.gov

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