Section 17.1

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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Monday, June 2 “A” Day
Throw it off the highest building,
and I'll not break. But put me
in the ocean, and I will. What
am I?
TODAY’S AGENDA
•Drug Unit Notes
• A Tissue or Wave
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
1.) An opioid is a mind-altering chemical that
can come from a plant (the opium poppy)
or be man-made. Which of these drugs is NOT an opioid?
A. Vicodin
B. Morphine
C. Heroin
D. Cocaine
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
2.) What percentage of people who smoke marijuana every
day become addicted?
A. 5-10%
B. 80-90%
C. 25-50%
D. 60-75%
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
3.) For several years now, there have been more deaths from
prescription pain reliever overdoses than from heroin and
cocaine combined. The deaths usually result from:
A. Damage to the brain, causing a stroke
B. Heart valve collapse
C. Respiratory failure (breathing stops)
D. Choking
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
4.) People who take drugs can develop tolerance over time.
This means:
A. They become nicer, calmer people.
B. They easily get sick to their stomach.
C. They need to take more of a drug to get the same effect.
D. They get physically stronger
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
5.) Sharing your ADHD medications with a
friend is:
A. Okay because a doctor prescribes these medications.
B. Prescription drug abuse.
C. Only abuse if the friend uses them to get high.
D. Legal.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
6.) What is NOT true about “bath salts,” often sold in head
shops:
A. They can cause intense cravings similar to what
methamphetamine users experience.
B. They usually contain some type of stimulant drug along
with other unknown ingredients.
C. They are really only dangerous if snorted or injected.
D. They have sent hundreds of people to the emergency
room.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
7.) K2 or Spice is a mixture of chemicals and herbs
sometimes called “fake marijuana.” If you smoke it, what will
you be inhaling?
A. Natural materials from eucalyptus leaves.
B. Incense approved by the FDA.
C. Powerful chemicals similar to the active ingredient in
marijuana, but much stronger and untested in humans.
D. Dried wildflowers.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
7.) K2 or Spice is a mixture of chemicals and herbs
sometimes called “fake marijuana.” If you smoke it, what will
you be inhaling?
A. Natural materials from eucalyptus leaves.
B. Incense approved by the FDA.
C. Powerful chemicals similar to the active ingredient in
marijuana, but much stronger and untested in humans.
D. Dried wildflowers.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
8.) Taking drugs can lead to HIV/AIDS—either through
shared needles or risky sexual behaviors. About how many
people in the US become infected with HIV each year?
A. 7,000
B. 12,000
C. 50,000
D. 110,000
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
9.) What is the worst thing that can happen to you if you
“sniff” an inhalant?
A. You can pass out.
B. You can die.
C. You can start coughing uncontrollably.
D. You can get serious muscle spasms.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
10.) Which best describes a good drug treatment program:
A. Never uses medicines to treat addiction.
B. Tailors treatment to the needs of each patient.
C. Doesn’t drag on past 2 or 3 weeks.
D. Expels anyone who relapses while in treatment.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
11.) What do all drugs of abuse have in common when it
comes to the brain?
A. They disrupt a region of the brain called the hypothalamus,
which influences thirst, appetite, and body temperature.
B. They overstimulate the cerebellum, the part of the brain
that helps us coordinate movements.
C. They cause a spike in dopamine levels, which makes us
feel pleasure and want to repeat the experience.
D. They increase the grey matter in the cerebral cortex,
making us more aware and alert.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
National Drug IQ Challenge
12.) Which drugs work by mimicking a chemical naturally
found in the brain?
A. Heroin
B. Marijuana
C. Nicotine
D. Alcohol
E. All of the above
F. A, B, and C
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Myth Medicines from a drugstore can’t harm you.
Fact Medicines can be just as dangerous as “street
drugs” if they are used inappropriately.
•What other myths do teens believe about drugs?
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Facts About Drug Use
• If drugs are not used as directed, serious health
problems can result.
• Medicines are legal drugs that help the body fight
injury, illness, or disease.
• Medicines can be classified into two groups: overthe-counter drugs and prescription drugs.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Over-the-Counter Drugs
• A medicine that is sold legally in pharmacies and
other stores without a doctor’s prescription is called
an over-the-counter drug.
• Any over-the-counter drug can cause harm if the
instructions on the label are not followed.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Prescription Drugs
• A drug that can be obtained only with a written order
from a doctor and can be purchased only at a
pharmacy is known as a prescription drug.
• Prescription drugs require more government control
than over-the-counter drugs because of their
potential for harm.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Illegal Drugs
• An illegal drug is a chemical substance that people
of any age may not lawfully manufacture, possess,
buy, or sell.
• Illegal drugs are also called street drugs.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Drug Misuse
• The improper use of medicines—either prescription
or over-the-counter drugs—is called drug misuse.
• Examples of drug misuse include
• taking more than the prescribed amount of a drug
• taking drugs with the wrong foods or at the wrong
time of day
• not taking a drug for the correct period of time
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Drug Abuse
• When a drug is intentionally used improperly or
unsafely, it is known as drug abuse.
• Drug abuse occurs when people intentionally use
any kind of drugs for nonmedical purposes.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
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Drug Abuse and the Brain
• A mood-altering drug, also called a psychoactive
drug (sy koh AK tiv), is a chemical that affects brain
activity.
• Most abused drugs are psychoactive.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
The “Reward Pathway”
• Many psychoactive drugs trigger activity along a pathway
of cells in the brain called the “reward pathway.”
• Brain cells along the activated reward pathway release a
chemical called dopamine (DOH puh meen).
• The extra dopamine released during drug use can cause
the user to ignore the harmful effects of the drug and want
to continue using it.
• Flooding the reward pathway with dopamine may lead to
intense cravings for the drug.
• After a time, drug abuse can dull the brain’s reactions to
natural levels of dopamine.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
How Drugs Affect the Brain
Area of the brain’s
“reward pathway”
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
How Drugs Affect the Brain
Area of the brain’s
“reward pathway”
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
How Drugs Affect the Brain
Area of the brain’s
“reward pathway”
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Addiction
• Abuse of psychoactive drugs may result in addiction.
• Addiction is the compulsive use of a drug, despite
any cost to health, family, or social standing.
• Addiction is a disease that changes the structure and
chemistry of the brain.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Dangers of Drug Misuse and Abuse
• Drugs can produce powerful changes in the body.
• But when drugs are misused or abused, many
serious health effects can result.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Side Effects
• A side effect is an unwanted physical or mental
effect caused by a drug.
• Side effects can include
• nausea
• dizziness
• drowsiness
• Side effects of a particular drug vary from person
to person.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Tolerance and Dependence
• When a person uses a drug repeatedly, the body
may develop tolerance to the drug.
• Tolerance may lead to drug dependence—the body
develops a chemical need for the drug and can’t
function normally without it.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Withdrawal
• If a person who is dependent on a psychoactive drug
stops taking the drug, that person will experience
withdrawal symptoms.
• Withdrawal symptoms include
• nausea or vomiting
• headaches or dizziness
• fever
• digestion problems
• paranoia or panic
• tremors, seizures, or death
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Drug Interactions
• When a person takes more than one drug at a time,
the drugs may interact in different ways than when
taken alone.
• Antagonism A drug antagonism
(an TAG uh niz um) occurs when each drug’s effect is
canceled out or reduced by the other.
• Synergism A drug synergism (SIN ur jiz um)
occurs when drugs interact to produce effects
greater than those that each drug would produce
alone.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Impurities
• Many illegal drugs are contaminated with chemicals
that may themselves be harmful or cause dangerous
drug interactions.
• Illegal drugs may vary widely from batch to batch in
the concentration of psychoactive chemicals
they contain.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Other Health Risks
• Hepatitis and HIV If drug users share needles to
inject drugs, contaminated blood left in the needle
can carry disease-causing viruses from user to user.
• Risks to Fetus and Newborn Drug abuse by a
pregnant woman places her baby at risk for a broad
range of developmental problems.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Depressants
• A psychoactive drug that slows brain and body
reactions is called a depressant.
• Depressants slow body functions by decreasing
heart and breathing rates and lowering
blood pressure.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Barbiturates
• One class of depressants is the barbiturates
(bahr BICH ur its) —also called sedative-hypnotics.
• In small doses, barbiturates are sedatives—they
relax a person.
• In high doses, barbiturates are hypnotics—they
induce sleep.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
CNS Depressants
• A CNS depressant is a sedative that slows the
activity of the central nervous system (CNS).
• CNS depressants
• slow nerve activity
• relax muscle tension
• lower alertness
• cause drowsiness
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Opiates
• An opiate (OH pee it) is any drug made from
psychoactive compounds contained in the seed pods
of poppy plants.
• In small doses, opiates act to dull the senses, relieve
pain, and induce sleep.
• Heroin is an illegal opiate made from morphine in
a laboratory.
• Heroin is highly addictive.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Stimulants
• A stimulant is a drug that speeds up activities of the
central nervous system.
• Stimulants increase
• heart rate
• blood pressure
• breathing rate
• alertness
• Physicians sometimes prescribe certain stimulants to
treat sleep disorders and behavioral disorders.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Amphetamines
• Amphetamines (am FET uh meenz) are
prescription drugs that are sometimes sold illegally
as “speed” or “uppers.”
• Amphetamine abuse produces feelings of well-being
and high energy.
• The effects wear off quickly and the abuser is often
left feeling depressed.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Methamphetamine
• A stimulant that is related to amphetamines, but is
even more powerful, is methamphetamine.
• Methamphetamine initially produces a rush, or “high.”
• But, after the rush wears off, the user may become
• confused
• shaky
• anxious
• irritable
• violent
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Cocaine
• Cocaine is a powerful but short-acting stimulant.
• Cocaine is highly addictive.
• When cocaine’s effects wear off, abusers often
experience depression, which can be severe.
• Crack is the strongest form of cocaine.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Hallucinogens
• A hallucinogen (huh LOO sih nuh jun) is a drug that
distorts perception, thought, and mood.
• Hallucinogens overload the brain with sensory
information, causing a distorted sense of reality.
• Abusers
• cannot tell what is real
• may experience memory loss and
personality changes
• may be unable to perform normal activities
• may lose track of time and their surroundings
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
LSD
• The strongest known hallucinogen is lysergic acid
diethylamide, or LSD.
Psilocybin
• Another hallucinogen is psilocybin
(sil uh sy bin)—sometimes called “shrooms.”
PCP
• One of the most dangerous of all drugs is PCP, short
for phencyclidine.
• Because the drug eliminates the sensation of pain,
abusers may unintentionally injure or even
kill themselves.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Marijuana
Marijuana
(mar uh WAH nuh) is
the leaves, stems,
and flowering tops of
the hemp plant
Cannabis sativa.
• Marijuana is one of the most frequently abused
psychoactive drugs.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Club Drugs, Inhalants, and Steroids
• Three classes of drugs that are of growing concern
in recent years are club drugs, inhalants, and
anabolic steroids.
• The effects of club drugs and inhalants are extremely
unpredictable and dangerous.
• Abuse of steroids causes lifelong damage to the
body and brain.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Club Drugs
• Club drugs got their name from the fact that they
first gained popularity at dance clubs and raves.
Ecstasy – E, X, XTC,
MDMA, Adam
Ketamine - K, Special K,
Ket, Vitamin K, Kit Kat
Date Rate Drugs
GHB – Liquid Ecstasy,
Liquid X, Grievous Bodily
Harm, Georgia Home
Boy
Rohypnol – Roofies, R-2
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Inhalants
A breathable chemical vapor that produces mind-altering
effects is called an inhalant (in HAYL unt).
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Anabolic Steroids
• Anabolic steroids are synthetic drugs
that are similar to the hormone
testosterone.
• Steroids are abused primarily by
people who want bigger muscles.
• Steroids can make a user’s personality
very aggressive.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Drug Scheduling Information
1. The drug's actual or relative potential for abuse.
2. Scientific evidence of the drug's pharmacological effects.
3. The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the
substance.
4. Its history and current pattern of abuse.
5. The scope, duration, and significance of abuse.
6. What, if any, risk there is to the public health. I
7. The drug's psychic or physiological dependence liability.
8. Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a
substance already controlled.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Schedule 1
• The drug or other substance has a high potential for
abuse.
• The drug or other substance has no currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States.
• There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug
or other substance under medical supervision.
• Examples of Schedule I substances include heroin,
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, and
methaqualone.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Schedule II
• The drug or other substance has a high potential for
abuse.
• The drug or other substance has a currently accepted
medical use in treatment in the United States or a
currently accepted medical use with severe
restrictions.
• Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to
severe psychological or physical dependence.
• Examples of Schedule II substances include
morphine, phencyclidine (PCP), cocaine, methadone,
and methamphetamine.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Schedule III
• The drug or other substance has less potential for
abuse than the drugs or other substances in schedules
I and II.
• The drug or other substance has a currently accepted
medical use in treatment in the United States.
• Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to
moderate or low physical dependence or high
psychological dependence.
• Anabolic steroids, codeine and hydrocodone with
aspirin or Tylenol®, and some barbiturates are
examples of Schedule III substances.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Schedule IV
• The drug or other substance has a currently accepted
medical use in treatment in the United States.
• Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to
limited physical dependence or psychological
dependence relative to • The drug or other substance
has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or
other substances in Schedule III.
the drugs or other substances in Schedule III.
• Examples of drugs included in schedule IV are
Darvon®, Talwin®, Equanil®, Valium®, and Xanax®.
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Section 17.1 Legal and Illegal Drugs
Schedule V
• The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative
to the drugs or other substances in Schedule IV.
• The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical
use in treatment in the United States.
• Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to limited
physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the
drugs or other substances in Schedule IV.
• Cough medicines with codeine are examples of Schedule V
drugs.
http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/abuse/1-csa.htm#Formal
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