Multiple Intelligences

Report
Multiple Intelligences
INSET DAY
Wyche C.E. School
Section 1:
What is Intelligence?
What is intelligence?
Intelligence is ….
“ the capacity to act
purposefully thinking
rationally and deal
effectively with the
environment”
David Wechsler
(inventor of Wechsler adult
intelligence scale)
What is intelligence?
“An intelligence is
the ability to solve
problems, or to
create products,
that are valued
within one or more
cultural settings”
Howard Gardner (1989)
What is intelligence?
“Intelligence is the capacity to do
something useful in the society in
which we live. Intelligence is the
ability to respond successfully to new
situations and the capacity to learn
from one’s past experiences.”
Dr. Howard Gardner, author, Frames of Mind and Multiple
Intelligences: The Theory in Practice
What is intelligence?
The Question isn’t
“How intelligent
is the child?”
But
“In what ways is
the child
intelligent?”
Trevor Hawes
Effective Teaching and Learning
What is intelligence?
“It’s not how
smart you are
it’s how you
are smart”
H. Gardner
“Common miracles”1993
What is intelligence?
"How would the
proverbial
Martian landing
on Earth view the
intelligence of the
human species?"
Harvard professor of education,
Howard Gardner.
What is intelligence?
Both Tom Cruise and
Robbie Williams both
were voted “the child
most likely to succeed
in life” by their
classmates
What were the
criteria used?
A story of intelligence?
A belligerent Samurai once challenged a Zen master to
explain the concept of Heaven and Hell. But the monk,
replied with scorn saying “You’re nothing but a lout, I can’t
waste my time with the likes of you.”
His very honour attacked the Samurai flew into a rage and
pulling his sword from it’s scabbard yelled, “I could kill you
for your impertinence.”
“That,” the monk calmly replied, “is Hell.”
Startled at seeing the truth the master had pointed out about
the fury that had him in its grip, the Samurai calmed down,
sheathed his sword and bowed, thanking the monk for the
insight.
“And that,” the monk replied, “is Heaven.”
Section 2:
Intelligence
A Recent Historical Perspective
Traditional View
“In my experience most people, both
teachers and the general public, still hold the
view that there is a single general
intelligence (IQ) which children have to a
greater or lesser extent and can be
accurately measured on an intelligence test”
Deborah Eyre
Able Children in Ordinary schools (1997)
Binet and Simon
The founder of these
traditional ideas was
Alfred Binet (a
Frenchman working in the
early 20th cent) with his
colleague Theodore
Simon
 Binet’s work saw
intelligence as hereditary
and therefore unchanging

Binet and Simon
“IQ has been thought to
be a fixed limit on an
individual’s capacity to
learn – which leads to
being regarded as more
or less able than their
peers”
Trevor Hawes
Effective Teaching and Learning
Binet and Simon


If his premise is true
one could devise a test
that would definitively
determine intelligence
levels for life
Binet used his tests to
sift out retarded
children and place
children in appropriate
grade levels
Binet and Simon
Binet’s work
influenced government
opinion and led to the
11+ selection system
 His work was later
found to be fabricated
 He even made up his
two assistants

Binet and Simon
Do we fall into this trap?
“Oh yes he’s really
intelligent”
But what do we mean?
Intelligent at what?
In what context?
Binet and Simon
“The fact that such a view remains dominant is
a legacy of the 1944 education act. This was
firmly rooted in the view that intelligence was
inherent and measurable and that these
different levels of intelligence needed different
types of education”
Deborah Eyre
Able Children in Ordinary schools
Intelligence : Changing Views
“The assumption that a high IQ
is essential for outstanding
achievement is giving way to
recognition of the vital role of
…. personal attributes such as
motivation, self discipline,
curiosity and a drive for
autonomy”
Freeman (1995)
Intelligence : Piaget


Piaget began work in
the 1920’s in Simon’s
laboratory
He became concerned
with the emphasis
being placed on the
answer and not on the
processes children
employed to get there
Intelligence : Piaget


His developmental
theory is well known and
has formed the basis for
much recent educational
thinking
However his theory still
concentrates on a
Linguistic/Mathematical
based model
Intelligence : Sternberg


1.
2.
3.
Sternberg was the first to develop a theory
that broke away form the one cohesive
intelligence model
He developed a tripartite theory with three
sub theories these included:
Context
Experience
Information Processing
Section 3:
An Introduction to
Multiple Intelligence
The Views of Howard Gardner
Gardener’s Premise


Intelligence is not a single
general capacity that each
individual has to a greater
or lesser extent of the
mind
Intelligence cannot be
measured by simplistic
pen and paper tests or
their like
Gardener’s Definition of
Intelligence
“An intelligence is the
ability to solve problems
or create products, that
are valued within one or
more cultural settings”
Frames of Mind
Introduction to second
edition p14
Gardener March 1993
Western Cultural Values



The Greeks valued
Academia
The ability to
remember factual
information and
process it cognitively
Emphasis on
Numeracy and
Literacy
Western Cultural Values



There is a distinction
between the Academic and
the Intelligent
Academic relies on
retention of information
and applying it to academic
contexts (e.g. writing
articles)
Intelligence is more broad
and more nebulous to
define
Western Cultural Values


Traditionally the
education system has
been weighted towards
the latter
Andy’s response to the
question “What was
that chemical?”
He was able to outline
its use and its name
Historical Values


In medieval times the
core subjects in the
curriculum were:
Grammar, logic and
rhetoric, Mathematics,
Geometry, Astronomy
and Music
Frames of Mind Introduction
to second edition p7
Gardener March 1993
The South American Tribe
The skill that was
prized was the ability
to hunt the monkey
1.Accuracy with
poisoned darts
2.General high levels
of fitness and stamina
Contextualisation of Intelligence
Increasingly there is a
trend within the
behavioural sciences to
cease seeing intelligence
as an innate, fixed
commodity but to
determine a person’s
intelligence in the light
of the social context they
find themselves in
Contextualisation of Intelligence
Hence:
The skills needed in
today’s society differ
greatly from those in the
post industrial revolution
and will again differ
from those required in
the knowledge economy
of the 21st Century
Multiple Intelligences
The first pages of Gardner’s book set out his desire
to develop a theory of intelligences that crosses
cultural and social boundaries
1.
2.
3.
The Puluwat tribesman chosen to be a master sailor
able to navigate around the islands by the stars
The 15 year old Iranian student who has
memorised the Koran by heart
The 14 year old adolescent in Paris who has
programmed the computer and is writing music
with the aid of a synthesiser
Who is more Intelligent?



Who is more
intelligent and how
would we know?
The Beckham and
Einstein brain debate
Much of it will be
governed by what
society deems to be
intelligent behaviour
Theories and Band Wagons
There is little value in
picking up and
running with
individual theories
 They need to dovetail
into a wider
educational
philosophy
 Constructivist theory

Section 3:
The Seven Intelligences
Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences









Verbal/Linguistic - "Word Smart"
Logical/Mathematical - "Math Smart"
Musical/Rhythmic - "Music Smart"
Bodily/Kinesthetic - "Body Smart"
Visual/Spatial - "Art Smart"
Interpersonal - "People Smart"
Intrapersonal - "Self Smart"
Naturalist - "Nature Smart"
Existential - "Wondering Smart"
Linguistic Intelligence
Linguistic Intelligence
Language
consists of
1.Phonology
2.Syntax
3.Semantics
4.Pragmatics
The first two are all about pure linguistic intelligence
The latter have input from other sources of
intelligence such as inter-personal, logical etc.
Linguistic Intelligence


Language is crucial
that of the language
area of the brain is
destroyed the brain
uses areas given over
to spatial abilities
The appreciation of
shades of meaning
Linguistic Intelligence

It was only in the
middle ages with the
advent of the printing
press that written
language became
important until then
oral language was
deemed a higher
quality to attain
Linguistic Intelligence
Hence rhetoric is
valued in leaders
 Public schools,
African cultures
today
 The great Greek
debates and the
emphasis on
oratory as a key
skill

Linguistic Intelligence


Today, has the internet
made written
communication more
important
Will the advent of
video conferencing
revert us back to
verbal language as a
core communication
skill?
Linguistic Intelligence



Written Language is harder
because a context for it
needs to be supplied
Verbal language has by
definition a context and has
the added dimension of
gestures and facial
expression
Novels can be translated
poems can’t
Musical Intelligence
Musical Intelligence



To some the art of
musical composing is
something that flows
naturally
“It is something that
the composer is born
to do” Aaron Copland
“I constantly hear
tones in my head”
Roger Sessions
Musical Intelligence
To some composing is as
natural as:
 “Milk coming from a
cow” (Wagner)
 “Apples coming from
an apple tree” (SaintSaens)
 “It’s just easy” David
Lowe
Musical Intelligence

1.
2.


Music is made up of two major
components
Pitch (or melody)
Rhythm
This may be horizontal
ie. how the pitch alters over time
Vertical where melody and
rhythms combine at the same time
Musical Intelligence
“music occupies a
relatively low
niche in our
culture, and so
musical illiteracy is
acceptable”
Frames of Mind Introduction to
second edition p7 Gardener March
1993
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence

1.
2.
3.
4.
Mathematical
intelligence fulfilled
in various arenas
Babylon: Astronomy
Pythagoras: Universe
and reason
Renaissance:
Nature’s secrets
Kant: Rational
Thinking
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence



Calculation in left
brain
Patterns and
relationships in the
right hand side
The pursuing of
Maths and Science as
an end in itself is a
Western ideal
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence


The autistic spectrum
holds children who
can tell you the day
of the week for any
date in the last 3
centuries
But although using a
mathematical
concept there is no
application
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence

Maths unlike all
other intelligences
is not auditory and
oral but is concrete
and established
through the
confronting of
objects
Mathematical/Logical
Intelligence



Maths is one of the
few intelligence that
can only be
appreciated by those
who have a similar
ability.
Loners and
mathematicians?
Not true of music,
literacy, personal skills
Spatial Intelligence
Spatial Intelligence
Fold a piece of
paper and fold
again and again.
How many squares
on the paper?
 Sometimes called
visual-spatial
 Did you multiply
2x2x2?

Spatial Intelligence


The autistic child who
can draw with great
accuracy the Houses
of Parliament with all
detail having seen it
once
Leonardo Da Vinci
who could suspend the
flight of birds and
draw them in pinpoint
accuracy
Spatial Intelligence



The ultimate test is chess
where players have to
determine a series of moves
ahead in their mind
The blindfolded player who
takes on three games
“You play chess
blindfolded anyway in the
sense that the pieces restrict
one’s ability to work out
further moves”
Spatial Intelligence
The intelligence with
the greatest gender
difference
 Men in the western
world outscore
women considerably
in this area

Spatial Intelligence
The Eskimos have to remember the detail in
each snow drift to determine their journey
home
 There is no gender difference in Eskimo
culture on spatial tests
 60% of Eskimos score within
the top 10% of westerners
on spatial ability

Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence



The Greeks held the
body on a par with the
body and the soul
Roger Sperry “What
use is intelligence if
you cannot put it into
action”
My father and the pool
table
Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence

Dance is culturally
bonding eg the haka

“If I could tell you
what it is I would
not have danced it”
Isadora Duncan – famous
dancer 20th century
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
Intelligence
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
The two intelligences
reflect our ability to
relate to others and
ourselves
 Intrapersonal is how
you understand
yourself
 Interpersonal is how
we relate to others

Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
These intelligences are
strongly culturally
based
 The interpersonal
skills in cultures are
rarely transferable
 Pubs and driving in
Canada/soles of your
feet in Thailand

Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
Society set the code and
the framework for these
intelligences
 A child picks up
approval and/or
disapproval for actions
from its own society
 The key attribute is the
ability to adapt to
circumstances

Interpersonal and Intrapersonal


The two intelligences are
physiologically separate.
Lesions in the brain have
demonstrated that in some
cases one loses an ability to
care for self whilst other brain
damage causes one to lack
empathy and aggressive and
temperamental behaviour
towards others
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
Tim and the living
proof of interpersonal
and intrapersonal skills
as a separate
intelligence
 Brain damage can take
away aspects of
personality as readily as
areas of a person’s
intellect

Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
Cultures place varying
emphasis on these two
areas
 The Eastern ideal is to
merge your personality
with the culture around
you
 The West values the
eccentric, the entrepreneur
and individual flair

The Dumbed Down Version
Mathematical - Carol Vordeman
 Linguistic - Shakespeare
 Musical - Mozart
 Interpersonal - Princess Diana
 Intrapersonal - Ghandi
 Bodily Kinaesthetic - David Beckham
 Spatial – Leonardo Da Vinci
 Naturalist - Charlie Dimmock

The Multi-Intelligence Man
Leonardo Da Vinci
excelled in Maths,
linguistic, logical
analytical, art,
sculpture
Section 5:
An Assessment framework for
the Multiple Intelligence Theory
Gardener’s Admission of his own
Definition
“… a definition that
says nothing about
either the sources of
these abilities or the
proper means of
testing them”
Frames of Mind Introduction
to second edition p14
Gardener March 1993
Clarification of the theory
After developing the
theory Gardner looked
towards assessing these
intelligences
His first thought was to
assess them in “pure”
form ending up with a
seven-pronged
intelligence profile
Clarification of the theory
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Multiple Intelligences
A traditional Multiple Intelligence profile
Test your own MI
There have been a raft of test materials for teachers
and staff to assess their own and their pupil’s
multiple intelligence profile
Use this website address to test your own MI
 http://www.thethinkingclassroom.co.uk/mionline
.htm
 http://www.surfaquarium.com/Miinvent.htm
 http://www.bass.gov.uk/MIprimary
Clarification of the theory
However children
demonstrate each
intelligence in a range of
domains or tasks.
e.g. Spatial intelligence
may be expressed in a
puzzle solution, route
finding, block building,
basketball passing
Clarification of the theory
Similarly adults do not
exhibit their spatial
intelligence directly
They develop spatial
skills that allow them to
become proficient chess
players, artists,
geometricians or
sportsmen.
Section 6:
Multiple Intelligences
The Heavy Section!!
Intelligences, Domains and Fields


“The concept of
intelligence constitutes a
true scientific paradigm
in the Kuhnian sense”
(p15)
Gardner came to see that
his theory required
further constructs when
applied to assessment.
Intelligences
At the level of the
individual it is right
to speak about human
intelligences
Hence we might say
“Mary has great
musical intelligence”
Domains
Humans are born into
cultures and these
have domains built
into them.
These are disciplines,
crafts and other
pursuits that any
given culture values.
Intelligences and Domains
Although there is a strong relation between
intelligence and domains they must remain distinct
in character

A musical performance needs intelligences
beyond musical (bodily-kinaesthetic, personal)

Similarly music intelligence can be displayed
in areas above and beyond music (dance,
advertising)
Fields
The field is a sociological construct and
includes the people, institutions, award
mechanisms that render judgements upon
performance.
This is the sharp end of where multiple
intelligences are assessed.
It is a judgement by any given society on
what it values and esteems within an
individual’s intelligence make up
Fields
The fields allow the
extent to which one is
deemed competent in a
given area
It will assess a
combination of one’s
natural intelligence, its
use in a range of domains
and relate performance to
a given end criteria
Football as an Intelligence!
The Intelligence Used:
Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence
The Domain:
F.A. coaching/ playing award
The Field:
Playing for Manchester United
A word of Caution
“to fall into the habit of saying that we here
behold the linguistic intelligence or the
spatial intelligence…these intelligences are
fictions - at most useful fictions – for
discussing processes and abilities that (like
all of life) are continuous with one another.
They exist not as physically verifiable
entities but only as potentially useful
scientific constructs” p69-70
Section 7:
Multiple Intelligences
Practical Implications
for Classteachers
Gardener’s Own Viewpoint


Gardner has not stated
the practical
implications of his
theory for classroom
but let teachers apply
it for themselves
Neither does he as a
matter of principle
endorse commercially
related products
Gardener’s Own Viewpoint
“Multiple Intelligences
(MI) is a tool. It’s not a
goal. That means
teachers have to decide
what to teach and that
should be based on what
they think is important”
Howard Gardner
Interview with NEA Today
The Key School



However he has
worked closely with
the Key School, now
called the Key
Learning Community
A pioneering school
for MI in the
curriculum
See their website
Possible Ways Forward




To make sure every
lesson has an aspect
that covers each of the
multiple intelligences
Make sure it covers
VAK learning
Is fully differentiated
for all children
All pigs ready to fly!
However what we could do…
“Estimates suggest
that 70% of the
National
Curriculum is
geared towards just
two intelligences”
Trevor Hawes
Effective Teaching and Learning
However what we could do…
“Teaching through the
7 intelligences
expands the
opportunities for all
pupils to construct
their own meaning in
the way most
appropriate to them ”
Trevor Hawes
Effective Teaching and Learning
The Vikings
If a key to history is to
use secondary sources
do those sources have
to be written?
 Viking Music
 Viking Artefacts
 Viking Art
 Viking Raiding Maps

The Vikings


One way many
schools apply the
theory is through what
they call “Self directed
learning” (child driven
learning)
Children use personal
strengths to take on
board new concepts
The Vikings



If a key historical question
is “Why did the Vikings
leave Scandinavia?”
They can acquire the
history concept through
any or all of Gardner’s
Intelligences
There may be an issue of
defensive timetabling
Final Thoughts
Theories and Band Wagons
There is little value in
picking up and
running with
individual theories
 They need to dovetail
into a wider
educational
philosophy
 Constructivist theory


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