Slides: Assessing Intelligence - AP Psychology-NWHS

AP Psychology
Alfred Binet
 Alfred
Binet and his
colleague Théodore
Simon practiced a more
modern form of
intelligence testing
 Developed questions
that would predict
children’s future
progress in the Paris
school system.
Alfred Binet—Mental Age
 Alfred
Binet was the first to develop a test to
classify children’s mental abilities Did
not test mastery of schoolwork or what
they should know after a specific class,
 Rather a child’s mental abilities that included
memory, attention, which he referred to as
mental age (definition to follow).
Alfred Binet—Mental Age
 There
are certain mental abilities
that a person should be able to
perform at a specific age- this is
referred to as mental age.
 This
mental age described where
a person should be intelligently.
 For example: a 9 year old should
have a mental age of 9.
 If a child who is 11, but has a
mental age of 5 would be
considered or may have a
The Stanford-Binet Test and
Intelligent Quotient
 Lewis Terman
adapted Binet’s test for use in the
United States, which he called the Stanford-Binet
 William
Stern wrote the scoring criteria for the
Stanford-Binet test through the development of
the Intelligence quotient
+ Lewis Terman & William Stern
Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
IQ=Intelligence Quotient
MA=Mental Age
CA=Chronological Age
score of 100 would be considered
Calculating Intelligence
For an average 7 yr old…
 MA=7
 CA=7
 IQ=(MA/CA)*100
 IQ=(7/7)*100
 IQ=1*100
 IQ=100 (average)
Calculating Intelligence
For an average 11 yr old…
Calculating Intelligence
For an above average 10 yr old…
 MA=12
 CA=10
 IQ=(MA/CA)*100
 IQ=(12/10)*100
 IQ=1.2*100
 IQ=120
Calculating Intelligence
For a below average 8 yr old…
Calculating Intelligence
has been replaced with modern
levels off at about 18x
Average 18 yr old
Average 36 yr old
Intelligence Tests
How is intelligence measured?
Intelligence Tests
 Binet-Simon
 First
test of intelligence, developed to identify
children who might have difficulty in school
 Binet developed the concept of mental age in
 Stanford-Binet
 L. M. Terman’s
adaptation of the Binet-Simon scale
 Terman introduced the I.Q. score
 A score of 100 is considered average
Aptitude vs. Achievement
Aptitude Tests
 Designed
to make
predictions about
future performances
 An ACT test is
considered an
aptitude test because
the score is used as a
predictor for success
in college
Achievement Tests
 Designed
to reflect
what a person has
learned, or mastered
 A test you take in
history would be an
achievement test
because it is
assessing what you
have learned in
David Wechsler
 Wechsler
developed the
Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
 And
later the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for
Children (WISC), an
intelligence test for
 The
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS),
the most widely used intelligence test in the
United States
 The WAIS has 2 sets of tests, verbal scale and
performance scale
 WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other
aspects related to intelligence that are designed
to assess clinical and educational problems.
Intelligence Tests
 Group Tests
 Intelligence
tests that can be given to large
 Advantages
Quick scoring
No examiner bias
Easier to establish norms
 Disadvantages
Less likely to detect someone who is ill or confused
Might make people nervous
Learning disabled children often perform worse
Intelligence Tests
 Performance
 Tests
that minimize the use of language
 Used to test very young children or people with
 Also can be used to test those unfamiliar with English
 Culture-fair
 Tests
designed to reduce cultural bias
 Minimize skills and values that vary from one culture
to another
Test Construction
How is test data analyzed?
+ Principles of test Construction
 Normal
Curve is a bell shaped curve that
includes a normal distribution of scores half above the average and half below the average
 with most scores falling right around the averagethe mean
+ Flynn Effect
 In
the past 60 years, intelligence scores
have risen steadily by an average of 27
points. This phenomenon is known as the
Flynn effect.
 What
might be contributing to this?
Principles of test Construction
 Mean
is the average score
 median
is score in the middle- the
high point of the curve
 mode
is the score or number that
appears the most
 standard
deviation is how the
scores deviate or spread from the
 if the mean is 71 and a person
scores a 4 then that score would
have high, or great standard
Principles of test Construction
 Standardization
is defining present
scores through comparison to a group
who previously took the test that is
called the representative sample
teacher often compares present
class scores to past scores to ensure
students learning the material.
 For example if a class averaged 51
and the group who took the same
test last year averaged 75, then the
teacher may have not properly
taught the material to the present
Principles of test Construction
 Reliability
is the measure of
giving a test multiple times
and receiving similar scores
each time the test is given
 A test is considered
reliable if each time that
test is given similar results
are posted.
Principles of test Construction—
Testing Reliability
 Alternative
form- giving alternatives of the same test
 If you took test form B, you should get the same score if
you took form A test
 Split-half-
calculating a score by dividing the test into
different parts then comparing
 Comparing the odd and even questions would be an
example of split-half reliability.
 Test-retest-
giving the same test twice and then
comparing the scores
Principles of test Construction
 Validity
is the extent to
which a test measures or
predicts what it is supposed
to measure
+ Principles of test Construction—
Testing Validity
 Content
validity- test measures the content it is
supposed to measure
If you are studying psychology, then you should take a psychology
test- not a history test
 Construct
validity- test measures a specific theory, or
Certain questions may be written to test if students are paying
attention in class- based on lectures
 Predictive
validity- test makes predictions about future
Certain questions may be written to test whether students will do
well on the following chapter

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