Intelligence

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Intelligence
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Essential Questions
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What is intelligence?
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What makes a person “smart”?
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What is the purpose of intelligence tests?
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How predictive are standardized tests (SATs)?
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What is Intelligence?
 Weschler
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Act purposefully
Think rationally
Deal effectively with the environment
 Spearman
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Intelligence is “general”; If you’re smart in one area, you’re
smart in all areas
Are there subcategories? (like “athleticism”, or “musical
talent”)
 Thurstone
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is the first to break it down
Spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, verbal
meaning, memory, word fluency, and reasoning
What’s missing?
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What is Intelligence?
 Cattell
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Crystallized (verbal abilities, reasoning) vs. Fluid
(observant, spatial awareness)
Education can increase crystallized, not fluid
Fluid can decline with age, crystallized increases
 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
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Analytical intelligence includes the ability to learn how to
do things, solve problems, and acquire new knowledge
(Alice)
Creative intelligence includes the ability adjust to new
tasks, use new concepts, and respond well in new situations
(Barbara)
Practical intelligence includes the ability to select contexts
in which you can excel and solve practical problems
(Celia)
Which of these do you think is the most valued? Most
important?
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The Origin of “Intelligence
Quotients”
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Early IQ tests were used to place children with learning
deficiencies
Simon-Binet Scale
 Measured “mental age” (based on logical, mathematical, spatial,
reasoning skills
Test was adapted by Terman (Stanford-Binet)
 Used to justify superiority of Anglo-Saxons
 Eugenics, Immigration caps
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Stern introduces IQ
Mental age vs. Chronological age
 If you perform at level of an 8 year old and are 10, your IQ is 80
Verbal reasoning
Abstract/visual reasoning
Quantitative reasoning
Short-term memory
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Intelligence Tests
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The Wechsler Intelligence Scales
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The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Third Edition is the most
commonly used test of intelligence for adults
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WAIS-III is divided into to parts, one that focuses on verbal
abilities and one that focuses on performance skills
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Also a version for children, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children – Third Edition
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What Makes a Good Test?
 Standardization
uniform rules for
administering, taking and scoring the test.
 Norms
– performance benchmarks established
during test development used to establish
“average” performance.
 Representative
Sample – group used to establish
norms that adequately reflects the demographics
of those who will be taking the test.
+ Scoring the IQ Test
 Raw
Score -
 number
of questions answered correctly; doesn’t tell
much about performance
 Standard
Score -
 score
that tells you how you did compared to other test
takers – a much better read of performance
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Percentile Score 
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What does it mean to score in the 85th percentile?
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 IQ
what percentage of test takers you scored better than
You scored better than 85% of the test takers
= Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
 Most
common IQ score?
 100! Why?
+ What are we looking at?
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Criticisms of IQ Tests
 Test
content and scores
 Tests
narrow set of skills?
 Measure of test taking ability?
 Test question bias unfair to minorities?
 Use
of intelligence tests
 Could
 IQ
result in permanent labeling
and success
 Relationship
does exist, but may be the result of a selffulfilling prophecy
 Case
of Gladys Burr?
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Critics of the “IQ”: Contemporary
Theories of Intelligence
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences
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Logical-mathematical
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Bodily-kinesthetic
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Linguistic
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Interpersonal
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Spatial
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Intrapersonal
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Musical
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Naturalistic
Can they be measured? How?
Should we change our educational model based on his
theory? (i.e. The Gardner School)
According to Gardner, what type of
intelligence are the following people
displaying a high level of?
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Lebron James
Pat Sajak
Ghandi
Adam Levine
Albert Einstein
Sigmund Freud
Ralph Waldo
Emerson
• Copernicus
• F. Scott Fitzgerald
• George
Washington
• Steven Wiltshire
• Danica Patrick
• Monet
• Ricky Fowler
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Contemporary Theories of Intelligence
 Daniel
Goleman
 Proposed
theory of Emotional Intelligence
 Emotional intelligence has five components
 Knowing one’s own emotions
 Managing one’s own emotions
 Using emotions to motivate oneself
 Recognizing the emotions of other people
 Managing relationships
Comparing Contemporary Theories
Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences
Sternberg’s Triarchic
Intelligences
Logical-Mathematical
Linguistic
Analytical
Spatial
Musical
Body-Kinesthetic
Creative
Interpersonal
Practical
Intrapersonal
Goleman’s Emotional
Intelligence
Recognizing emotions in
others and managing
relationships
Knowing, managing, and
motivating yourself with
emotions
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What Determines Intelligence?
 Nature
 Biological
similarities in Adoption Studies –
 IQ scores of child more closely correlated with
biological mother than adoptive mother.
 Identical Twins reared apart –
 after identical twins reared together, identical
twins reared apart have the highest correlation
of IQ scores.
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Correlation of IQ Scores of Family
Members
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What Determines Intelligence?
 Nurture
 Isolated
or Deprived Environments
 Individuals living in culturally or physically
impoverished environments have lower IQ
scores
 Low SES areas; Eastern European Orphanages
 Causes?
 Hart and Risley’s study: After four years,
children in welfare families would have
heard 32 million words less than children
from professional families.
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What determines intelligence?
 Nurture
(Cont.)
 Can
IQ change in an improved environment?
 H.M. Skeels’ Orphanage Study
 Nurture (even if it is from intellectually
impaired) increases IQ
 Capron and Duyme’s Adoption Study
 Followed children adopted by high vs. low SES
 Adopted children reared in high SES had
highest scores
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BUT REMEMBER: IQ IS “RELATIVELY STABLE”
AND DEPENDS ON NATURE AND NURTURE
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Heredity vs. Environment:
Which is More Important?
 There
is general agreement that both
heredity and environment affect IQ scores
 Debate
centers around the relative
contribution of nature (heredity) and
nurture (environment) to the development
of intelligence
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Creativity
 Defined
as the ability to produce novel and socially
valued ideas** or objects
 Creativity
has also been a shared trait in various murder
cases
 Phil Spector: Songwriter, Producer and Creative
Genius?
 Creativity
and Intelligence –
 Correlation: creative
individuals tend to have higher
IQs AND creative individuals are perceived as
being more intelligent as well.
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The Tests:
 Open-ended
questions
 Scoring based upon
 number of and
 originality of a
person’s answers
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RAT (Remote Association Test)
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What words completes the
triad? (park, gown, power)
Torrance
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Complete the Picture
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Yamodo (like the Torrance?)
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Rate the creativity
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Creative uses for:
A
A
Brick
piece of string and a cup
of rice

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