Challenges Faced by Muslim Ummah

Report


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Q.No.2013. write down in detail the problems of “Ummah” in the
contemporary world.
2012- ‫جدید تہذیب و تمدن کا نقطہ نظر بیان کرتے ہوۓ مسلم امہ پر اس کے‬
‫اثرات بیان کیجیۓ‬
Q.7-2011-In the present period the Muslim Ummah is facing different
problems and for the solution of these problem “ijtehad” is necessary,
so point out such an institution that can offer solution of the new
problems with the help of Ijtehad
Q.9-2011-In the present era, Muslim Ummah has all the resources,
but it is the victim of disunity, while analysis the reasons of disunity,
suggest measures to maintain unity amount the Muslim Ummah
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Concept of Ummah
The Past_Glorious
The Present_Turmoil
The Future_ ?????
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
Causes of debacle
Responsibilities
Suggestions
Problems in Implementation
Epilogue
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
The phrase Ummah in the Qur'an refers to all
of the Islamic world unified.
The Quran says:
“You [Muslims] are the best nation brought out for
Mankind, commanding what is righteous (Ma'ruf, lit.
"recognized [as good]") and forbidding what is
wrong (Munkar, lit. "unrecognized [as good]")…”
[3:110].
“The Muslims, regardless of their origin,
irrespective of their geographical boundaries
and racial characteristics are one Ummah”
(The Convention of Madina)


Pan-Islamism is a political movement
advocating the unity of Muslims under one
Islamic state — often a Caliphate
Religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism
differentiates itself from other pannationalistic ideologies
•
•
•
Allama Iqbal:
– All the Muslims beyond any difference of color, caste, nation, state,
ideology at the basis of religion are called Muslim Ummah.
Syed Jamal-ud-din Afghani:
– All the Muslim states constitute Ummah. He was preacher of Pa
Islamism.
Shah Wali Ullah:
– Muslims belonging to Muslim states only constitute Muslim
Ummah.
– Muslims present in any part of the world are part of Muslim
Ummah.

Muslim Ummah has Glorious History which Produced;
◦ Great Generals,Reformers, Thinkers, Scientists, Scholars and
Astronomers

Today Muslims face a Common Threat of their Survival

Rise and fall is a social phenomenon, may be Muslim
Ummah is facing its logical correction

We are all Muslims, we believe in one God i.e.
Almighty Allah, we believe in one Prophet i.e.
Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe wa Aal-e-hee
Wasallam) and we all have the book of Allah
i.e. Qur'an.
•
•
•
This difference in approaches on purely a
political issue divided the Muslims
permanently.
However, there were no differences among
Muslims regarding Islamic Jurisprudence and
worshipping (Ibadaat).
If some differences occasionally appeared
among them, they never considered it as a
difference that could divide Muslims.



Development of Islamic Jurisprudence (The
science of Fiqah), four Ahle Sunnat Imams of
Islamic Jurisprudence, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam
Malik, Imam Shafi'e and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal
learnt Islamic Jurisprudence from Imams of Ahle
Bait
Imam Abu Hanifa was a student of Imam Ja'ffar
us Sadiq
The major division among Muslims in
Jurisprudence occurred when the Science of
Fiqah (Islamic Jurisprudence) became a formal
subject, the Sunni Muslims were divided into
four Madhahib (ways), HANAFI, MALKI, SHAFI'E
AND HANBALI.

The local nationalism was never preferred
over the worldwide Islamic brotherhood.
 Imam Muslim, Imam Bukhari, Imam Trmidhi and
many other Imams and scholars of Islam were non
Arabs but no one felt that they were from n



Muslims were the leaders in setting up the
standards for the rest of the world.
Muslims were educators, scientists, doctors,
engineers, commanders, etc.
Muslims were the leaders and model for
other communities and nations
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
After almost 13 centuries of Muslim rule, the
focus of Muslim Ummah changed.
What Qur'an describes the attributes of
Muslims as,
◦ "They (Muslims) are very kind among themselves
but very hard on Kuffaar".

Muslims slowly adopted the opposite
attributes.
◦ They became very kind to KUFFAAR and very hard
and cruel to



Touheed
 Cant be changed
Risalat ,
 West develop and support few Muslims who are
willing to challenge the honour and authority of
Muhammad (peace be upon him).
Holy Book,
 we believe that Qur'an is the word of God and can
not be changed.
 West develop and support those Muslims scholars
who will be able to provide "new" meanings to the
Qur'anic verses and interpret them "differently"
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Period of Nabuwat
Period of Khilafat
Hazrat Umer Farooq (R.A) Iran, Iraq,
Palestine and Egypt were conquered.
Hazrat Usman (R.A) Afghanistan, Qabris,
Tunis and Moroco were conquered.
Hazrat Ali (R.A)
◦ Jang-e-Nehrwan with Kharji, Jang-e-Jaml with
Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) and Jang-e-Safeen with
Ameer Muawia.
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During the period of H Ameer Muawia Muslims got
military strength. After Ameer Muawia long chain
of government is being followed.
Muawia---Yazid---Muawia II---Merwan---Abdul
Malik---Waleed Bin Malik
In the period of Waleed Bin Malik great victories
came in part of Muslims.
◦
◦
◦
◦

Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh
Qateebah Bin Muslim Conquered Turkistan
Tariq Bin Ziyad conquered Spain, Portugal
Musa Bin Naseer conquered Undlus, Africa
After this Islam emerged as power and penetrated
in whole world quickly.
Hazrat
Umer
(R.A)
Alexander
The
Great
Akber
Sulaman
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Period of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz
Hasham Bin Malik ruled over Central Asia,
Roam
Periodof Khilafat-e-Bnu Abbas
◦ Haroon-ur-Rasheed laid stress on education and he
developed schools and colleges to spread
education. Muslims got strength in education in his
period.

Umayyad
◦ Lost control of the empire in 750, but set up control
of Muslim lands in Spain

Abbasids
◦ Took over the empire from the Umayyad Dynasty,
moving the capital from Damascus to Baghdad

Fatimid
◦ An off-shoot of the Abbasids, they controlled most
of North Africa and Western Arabia
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Bring the period 300-400AH Khilafat was
divided.
Aal-e-boya
Iran
Fatimi
Egypt
Ghazni
Alpatagin
Banu Idrees Africa
Umvi
Undlus
From 400-500 AH Shia-Suni split happened.
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500-600 Crusades (Noor-ud-Din Zangi and
Salah-u-Din Ayubi)
600-700 was a period of Tatars attacks and
falloff Baghdad 1258
First Qibla captured by Crusaders
700-800 Ameer Taimoor-Mahood Garan
accepted Islam. And havoc was turned
800-900 height of Ottoman Empire
Rule of Banu Abbass ended in 923 AH
900-1000 Saleem Usmani, Ottoman Empire
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The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was originally
intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem
by means of an invasion through Egypt.
In 204 Constantinople, capital of the Eastern
Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
The Empire received a mortal blow in 1204 by the
Fourth Crusade, when it was dissolved and divided
into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople
and re-establishment of the Empire in 1261
1000-1100 period of fall
 1100-1200 wars with Russia, Astria, Attack of
Abdalli,Durrani on India
 1200-1300 Egypt Vs Ottomans, rebellion in Bosnia,
Napoleon’s attacks, Wahabiz at Hijaz
 1300-1400 fall of Khilafat
 I-WW, II-WW

Muslims enjoyed victories
 They had strong military
 They were at peak in education, justice and culture
 They were one Ummah
 They had strong economy and Jihad was basic tool
of strong economy.

Jihad
Self
Finance
Pen
Qittal
Lisan
Social
Economy
Distribution
of Wealth
Education
War
Economy
Media
 The
conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan,
Somalia, Algeria, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon,
Bangladesh, Iraq,Lebyia, Palestine, Syria
 Think
of any !!!
 Organization
of Islamic Cooperation-OIC
 ECO
 Arab
League
 African Union
 UNO 57 Members
 No Veto
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Geostrategic importance
Combine location of most Islamic states
Universal Religion
99% literacy rate in CARs, 57 % in Pakistan,
Iran exhibit high scientific publication growth arte in 2009
From seven three great : Egyptian, Gandhara,
Indus/Moenjodaro Civilizations are in Muslim Countries
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Collective population of member states is 1.6 billion as 200910
Combined GDP of $ 13 Trillion
Turkey had highest GDP on 2010 among OIC members as $
729 Billion
OPEP: Except Venezuela 34% oil contribution comes from
Muslim world
In Euro Zone, 575 B$ contribution is of Arab world in
insurance banking and stock exchange.
Trillion $
GDP (PPP)
Exports
Imports
OIC
5,664
1,392
933
% of World
6.81%
13.47%
9.03%
World
83,120
10,330
10,300
Arab League
2,323
European Union
12,180
1,318
1,402
Rank
Country
GDP $Million
—
World
—
European Union
1
United States
2
China,
3
India
4
Japan
15
Indonesia
16
Turkey
17
Iran
26
Egypt
27
Pakistan
78,852,864
15,788,584
15,064,816
11,316,224
4,469,763
4,395,600
1,122,638
1,054,560
930,236
516,181
489,436
Rank
country
GDP - per capita Date of
(PPP) Information
1
Qatar
$ 179,000
2010 est.
2
Liechtenstein
$ 141,100
2008 est.
3
Luxembourg
$ 82,600
2010 est.
4
Bermuda
$ 69,900
2004 est.
5
Singapore
$ 62,100
2010 est.
6
Jersey
$ 57,000
2005 est.
7
Norway
$ 54,600
2010 est.
8
Brunei
$ 51,600
2010 est.
9
United Arab Emirates
$ 49,600
2010 est.
10
Kuwait
$ 48,900
2010 est.

Measures each country's progress toward
democratic governance through multiple
variables
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Governance
Freedom
HDI
Religious liberty.
Economic Freedom

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Only three of these countries—Mali, Guyana, and
Suriname, together representing less than 1 percent of the
Muslims present in the survey group—are considered full
democracies.
The rest of the countries in the index are considered partial
democracies or partial autocracies, with four countries—
Chad, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan, together
representing almost 20 percent of the population—being
full autocracies
Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa is the
exception rather than the rule
Countries must determine how much of their money
to spend on guns—order and security—and butter,
that is, spending that enhances social harmony and
economic prosperity.
 The Status of Democracy Index score serves to
illustrate the guns versus butter dilemma.
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The greater percentage of Muslims a country had relative to its
overall population, the lower its SDI score
The higher a country's GDP per capita, the lower its SDI score
The greater percentage of a country's GDP that is devoted to
military expenditures, the lower its SDI score
The greater a country's military expenditure percentage, the
lower its SDI
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Illiteracy
Terrorism
Poverty-HDI
Autocracy-SDI
Far behind in Science
and Technology
No Veto Powers
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Concentration of wealth
Redefining the role of
women
Lack of Institutional Ijtehad
Occupied Lands
War ridden Economies
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Best: Jordan & Kuwait
Worst: Djibouti, Yemen, Iraq and Morocco
Study of Arab league:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
30% of Arab population are illiterate.
0.3% of GDP of Arab States is devoted to scientific research.
$5-7 per capita is spent on R&D in Arab States.
$1000 per capita is spent on R&D in China.
600 research centers in Arab world vs 1500 in France alone.
30% of scientists in the US are from Arab countries
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Forgetting Shariah
Materialism
Internal conflicts-Division
◦ Nationalism -Regionalism (Arab, Non Arab or Arab, African)
◦ Sectarian
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
Internal and International conspiracies
Illiteracy, poverty and conservatism
Leaving Jihad and spirituality

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Acting off beam philosophies including deen-eIlahi,
Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Mootazilla
Aqeedat and Taqleed, Khangahi approach
Irrational customs-Innovations and Biddat
Traitors
◦
◦
◦
◦
1757, Battle Palassi, Nawab Siraj-ud-Dola
1799, Saranga Patam, Tipu Sultan
1857, Dehli, Bahadur Shah Zafar
1739, Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk
 Meer Jaffar was traitor of Tipu Sultan and Meer Sadiq was traitor of Sultan
Nizam-ul-Mulk

Understanding, implementation and preaching of
shariah- Religious

Establishment of Khilafat/Shariah-Political

Jihad-Economic

Ijtehad-Educational

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Attainment of Veto power by Muslim countries
Islamic banking system, which ensures a system of interest
and exploitation free principles
Effective Political role of OIC
Collective media of all countries to protect Muslim world
Common currency
Less reliance on USD
Common trade market
Common court of justice
Institutional Ijtehad
Development of Science and Technology

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Linguistic issues
Inter and intra country Economic disparity
Leadership crises
◦ Political, military and economic strengths are distributed. Iran is
politically strong, Pakistan had influential military, and KSA is
economically rich, Together Muslim world can bring revolution

Disparity between population and physical area
Political Problems
•
•
•
•
•
Territorial Disputes
Ethnic Clashes
Dictatorships
Monarchies
Fragile Political Governments
Economic Problems
•
Muslims Represents 1/5th of World’s Population,
Possess 70% of World’s Energy Resources, 40% of
available raw material
• The Total GDP of Muslim Countries = 5% of
World’s GDP
• Entire GDP of OIC States = 4300 Billion US $ and
Japan = 5500 Billion US $
Social Problems
•
•
•
•
Nationalism and Sectarianism
Jihad and Terrorism
Absorption of Foreign Culture
Clash of Civilization
Educational Decay
•
•
•
Lack of Creativity and Innovation
Failure to Promote Technical Education
Failure to Educate Women
According to the Question
 Good Governance Models of

◦ Pakistan-Army and Nuke
◦ Turkey- Modernization
◦ Iran-Oil and Political Will
◦ KSA_ Religion and Economy
◦ Malaysia-Development and Governance
Biology:
 Geology:
 Theology:
 Technology:
 Ideology:

The political role of death.
Recovering from the curse of oil.
Not all Islamists are Bin Laden.
free public sphere.
The end of Sectarianism
1.Mass-initiated
2.Elite-
(revolutionary transitions).
Led.
3.Occupation.
4.Naïve liberalization.
5.Negotiated Exit.
For democracy to consolidate, a strong
commitment to democracy on the parts of
elite and masses (i.e. political participation)
should be present.
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“Democracy-friendly”
aspects of Islam
such as shura.
ijtihad.
racial equality.
Islam’s sensitivity to
the needs of the poor
and weak.
Respect for order.
Islam’s sense of justice.
“Democracy-challenging” aspects
of Islam
 Democracy as people-focused
doctrine while tawheed
(oneness of God) as pietyfocused doctrine.
 Beda’a (disguised innovation).
 Ijma’a that delegitmizes
dissent and opposition.
 The unequal status of women
and non-Muslims in Islam.
 The link between mosque and
monarch.
Democracy as a Hardware for
“Label”
Democracy:
“Institutions
and
Procedures”
Software for
Democracy:
“Socio-Political
and Religious
Tolerance”
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Countries that has 480 or more respondents.
Including 4 countries where Muslims are
minorities: USA, EU, and India.
Total of 33 countries.
91 Iraqis residing in the Arab world are
included.
Hardware for
Democracy:
Institutions and
Procedures
Software for
Democracy:
Socio-Political and
Religious Tolerance”
Traditionalist
Islamists
(Deductionists)
Modernist
Islamists
(combination)
Secularist
Muslims
(Inductionists)
?? is Islamic if it is
explicitly accepted
by the Qura’an and
Sunni and forms
(quasi-) consensus
among ‘Ulama.
?? is Islamic if it does
not contradict with
the Qura’an and
Sunni.
Tell me what is good
for society, I will get
you what will
support it from the
Qura’an and Sunni.
They fear
imitating nonMuslims since it
is innovation.
It is not imitation,
it is wisdom.
Innovation is
better than blind
imitation.
71
Relatively Most Democratizable
Cultures
Support for Democratic Software
69
67
Albania
Turkey
USA
Morocco
Egypt
65
63
India
Qatar
61
Malaysia
Senegal
Mali
Gambia
UAE
Bangladesh
59
Europe
Iran
Bahrain
57
Turkmenistan
55
Iraq
Average
Oman
53
51
47
45
Yemen
43
Kuwait
Jordan
Lebanon
Libya
49
Algeria
Syria
Indonesia
Tunisia
Sudan
Pakistan
Nigeria
S.Arabia
41
Tajikistan
39
Relatively Least
Democratizatble Cultures
37
Relatively Least
Democratizable Cultures
Support for Democratic Hardware
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
Respondents’ Ideal Political Systems (%)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Modernists
Traditionalists
Autocr-ats
Pluralists
Freq.
Total
Select-ing
Own
Count-ry
Iraq
43
0.18
0
0
0
11
0
Turkey
102
0.42
12
18
1
5
22
Jordan
173
0.71
11
5
2
21
10
Pakistan
311
1.28
8
1
4
18
4
Egypt
395
1.62
3
2
1
19
6
Sudan
398
1.63
15
5
12
9
3
S. Arabia
401
1.65
14
1
14
1
0
UK
503
2.06
34
10
1
1
14
India
546
2.24
23
6
0
2
12
France
955
3.92
31
7
0
1
10
Afghan
2,989
12.27
-
3
14
2
0
Iran
3,372
13.84
27
17
3
6
6
USA
4,072
16.71
37
11
0
2
12
None
9,883
40.56
-
14
48
2
1
Total
24,365
100
100
100
100
100
24.93
34
1
6
48
Support
Democracy


Blaming the West for the continuation
and spread for dictatorships in the
Muslims world .
The attitudes toward political Islam
measured by Muslims’ attitudes toward
the concept of Islam as a religion and
state were not found to be helpful in
explaining the attitudes of Muslims
toward democratic hardware at all.




Muslims and Arabs are too
heterogeneous to be studied in a lumpsum way of thinking.
Not all secular Muslims are liberal and
not all Islamists are anti-democracy.
Some do bark: some countries’ political
cultures are compatible with democracy-- search elsewhere for why they do not
democratize.
Some countries’ political cultures are
clear obstacles to democratization.
B.
Reasons for success
1. Muhammad’s desire to spread Islam North
2. Disciplined and well commanded armies
3. Persecution suffered by people under Byzantine
and Sassanid rule b/c they didn’t support state
religion
4. Muslims allowed conquered peoples to follow
their own religion, but not spread it, as long as
they paid the tax
A.
Society
1. Rise of Muslim Cities



Many cultures combined
Attracted many people
Baghdad approaches 1 million people



Upper class—Muslim at birth
Second Class—converts to Islam
Third Class—”protected peoples” included Christians,
Jews, and Zoroastrians
Lowest Class—slaves (POWs; all non-Muslims)
2. 4 Social Classes:

1300-1700
 The
Ottomans
 The Safavids
 The Mughals




Anatolian Turks: ghazis, warriors for Islam
Formed military societies and invaded the
territories of infidels, people who did not
believe in Islam
Osman: successful ghazi, his followers were
called Ottomans
Success and expansion until stopped by
Timur the Lame



4 powerful sultans led Ottoman Empire until
1566
1453: took Constantinople (now Istanbul,
Turkey) under Mehmed the Conqueror
1514: defeated the Safavid under Selim the
Grim
◦ Continued on to take Mecca, Medina and Cairo

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
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Suleyman the Lawgiver
and Suleyman the
Magnificent
Continued to expand
the empire into Central
Europe, North Africa
and Central Asia
Structured social
organization: law code,
simplified taxes and
government
Tolerance of religious
and cultural
differences
Istanbul, Turkey


Pattern of gaining power and holding power
The practices of the sultans led to weak
leaders and the decline of the empire
◦ Suleyman killed his most capable son and sent
another into exile
◦ Selim II inherited the throne

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Major influences: Persians, Ottomans, Arabs
Located between the Ottoman Empire and the
Mughal Empire
Strong military force
Leader Isma’il became a religious tyrant and
controlled Persia, (now Iran) and took the
ancient Persian title of shah (meaning king)
Defeated by Ottomans in 1514, set present
day border between Iraq and Iran



Shah Abbas, also called Abbas the Great,
helped create a Safavid culture that drew
from the best of the Ottoman, Persian and
Arab worlds
Reforms and respect for military and civilian
life
Tolerance for other religions and cultures
◦ Encouraged industry, trade and art exchanges with
European nations

Built a beautiful new capital at Esfahan with
influences from all over Europe and Asia

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