Marian Chertow

Report
Taking Action on Materials:
Global Examples of
By-Product Synergy
Professor Marian Chertow, Yale University
Presentation - US Business Council for
Sustainable Development
July 17, 2013
Outline for Today

Introduction and Vocabulary for Industrial
Ecosystems/Symbiosis/By-Product Synergy

Examples
 China – Tianjin Economic-Technological
Development Area (TEDA)
 India – Nanjangud Industrial Area, Mysore
 Korea – Korean Industrial Complex
Corporation (KICOX)
Industrial ecology is concerned with
managing the physical resources of our
modern technological society
“In an industrial ecosystem, the consumption
of energy and materials is optimized, waste
generation is minimized, and the effluents
from one process serve as the raw material for
another”
R.A. Frosch, and N. Gallopoulos,
Strategies for Manufacturing,
Scientific American, 260 (3), 144, 1989
The first great article of industrial ecology…
The Industrial Ecosystem of Kalundborg, Denmark
Statoil Refinery
Liquid
Fertilizer
A-S Bioteknisk
Jordrens
Sulfur
Water
Sludge
(treated)
Water
Farms
Municipality of
Kalundborg
District heating
Energy E2 Power
Station
Sludge
(treated)
Yeast slurry
Steam
Lake
Tissø
Steam
Gas
Steam
Water
Cooling
water
Boiler
water
Sludge
Pharmaceutical
Scrubbe
r
Sludge
Heat
Fly ash
Wall-board Plant
Fish
farming
Cement;
roads
Recovered nickel
and vanadium
Sample Benefits of Industrial Symbiosis/
By-Product Synergy to Kalundborg Participants

Water savings




Input chemicals/products




Oil refinery – 1.2 million cubic meters
Power station – total consumption reduced by 60%
System:
 Ground water 2 million cubic meters/year (530 million
gallons)
 Surface water
1 million cubic meters/year (265 million gallons)
170,000 tons of gypsum
97,000 cubic meters of solid biomass (NovoGro 30)
280,000 cubic meters of liquid biomass (NovoGro)
Wastes avoided through interchanges



50,000-70,000 tons of fly ash from power station
2800 tons of sulfur as hydrogen sulfide in flue gas from oil
refinery
240,000 tons CO2 reduction annually
Industrial Symbiosis

Industrial symbiosis engages traditionally separate
industries in a collective approach to competitive
advantage involving physical exchange of
materials, energy, water, and/or by products

The keys to industrial symbiosis are collaboration
and the synergistic possibilities offered by
geographic proximity.
M. Chertow 2000
Annual Review of Energy and Environment
(Also Wikepedia)
Jurong Island, Singapore
EU, Vienna,
Austria
UK
Monfort
Boy’s Town, Suva, Fiji
Tianjin Economic-Technological Development
Area: TEDA as a Salt Pan in 1984
Tianjin Economic-Technological
Development Area (TEDA) - 2006
Summary of all symbiotic exchanges
identified in TEDA
Resource
exchanged
I-I exchange
(%)
I-E exchange
(%)
Average
distance (km)
2 (3%)
Subtotal
(%)
7 (9%)
Energy
5 (6%)
Water
12 (15%)
0 (0%)
12 (15%)
3.5
Material
16 (20%)
46 (56%)
62 (76%)
28.2
Subtotal
33 (41%)
48 (59%)
81 (100%)
2.9
Nanjangud Industrial Area, Karnataka
India
20km
Nanjangud
45 facilities – 900,000 tons of potential discards
Profile of industrial enterprises in NIA
A sugar refinery and a coffee/beverage
producer account for ~60% production
volume
 Printed circuit boards, paper, textiles,
automotive parts, distillery
 Micro-enterprises: granite cutters, oil
producer, food processors
 Surrounded by a large agricultural
community

Industrial food
web in
Nanjangud
Industrial Area
Mysore, India
Final disposition of all materials generated by
NIA facilities in Mysore, India
EIP master plan for South Korea
Korea Industrial Complex Corporation
Phase 1
5 EIP pilot projects
(US$ 17 million)
Phase 2
Diffuse EIP concept
to 8 industrial parks
(US$ 68 million)
2005 ~ 2009
2010 ~ 2014
Phase 3
2 to 3 new EIP
(US$ 6.8 million)
2015 ~ 2019
Overview of Ulsan National Industrial Parks
Category
Ulsan
Mipo
Onsan
Total
Food
8
-
8
Textile
5
-
5
Wood / Papers
14
3
17
Petrochemicals
135
63
198
Non ferrous
29
9
38
Steel
132
66
198
Machinery
13
21
34
Electrical,
Electronics
84
7
91
Transport
Equipments
223
70
293
Others
27
7
34
Services
93
29
122
Total
763
275
1,038
Source : KICOX (As on Apr. 2011)
Overall Objectives for Ulsan National
Industrial Parks
Pollution
reduction
Cascading
Zero-Emission
via Resource
recycle
Environmental
Quality
Improvement
Cost Reduction
and Enhanced
competitiveness
Harmony with
New business
Eco-Polis Ulsan
Community
Sustainable
Society
Zero Emission
via Resource
Circulation
Enhancement of
Industry
Competitiveness
Implementation: Top-down IS network
Air
emission
CO2
generation
CO2
generation
CO2 reuse
BOILER
Cogeneration
Plant &
BOLIER
PROCES
S
PROCES
S
STEAM
supply
Outside steam
Outside sale


Economic benefit : 6.6 million US$/yr (Steam selling
and B-C replacement)
Environmental benefit: Reduction of 63,643 tons
CO2/yr, 1691.5 ton /yr air pollutants
Thank you and

Next!
Chinese EIP standard






Added industrial value per capita, and rate of growth of value
Eco-efficiencies (per added industrial value)





Energy consumption
Freshwater consumption
Wastewater generation
Solid waste generation
COD emissions



Industrial water
Middle water
Solid waste


Treatment percentage of wastewater
Availability of common waste collection, wastewater treatment
systems
Reuse ratios
Shared services/utilities
Management systems


Environmental management system
Availability of information management system


Release of public environmental report
Public satisfaction with environmental quality
Public relations
Source: Geng et al, 2009
Kalundborg as an Adaptive System

Changes in footprint: Refinery doubles in size
with North Sea oil claims

Changes in flows: Power station switches fuel to
meet regulations for CO2 reductions

Changes in organization: Pharmaceutical
operation splits into two companies to separate
biotech operations; an international company
buys out the Danish gypsum board company
Kalundborg Symbiosis Institute
spread over ~ 7 km
The Symbiosis Activities
Kalundborg Symbiosis Institute
26

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