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FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS
1. Which statement is true of all rocks?
(1) Rocks contain organic material.
(2) Rocks contain fossils.
(3) Rocks are composed of minerals.
(4) Rocks are formed in layers.
2. Weathering and erosion of Earth’s crust are
primarily caused by
(1) gravity
(3) evaporation
(2) volcanic activity (4) sedimentation
3. The diagram below shows a rock sample
and an identification key.
Natural Cement
Key
Shell fragment
Feldspar fragment
Quartz fragment
This rock sample would best be classified as
(1) volcanic
(3) metamorphic
(2) sedimentary
(4) igneous
4. Igneous rocks are formed by:
(1) weathering
(3) volcanic activity
(2) cementation
(4) sedimentation
5. If shell fragments are found in a rock sample, it is
most likely that the rock formed:
(1) on a mountain slope (3) on a glacier
(2) from magma
(4) in shallow water
6. In which type of rock are fossils generally found?
(1) igneous
(3) sedimentary
(2) metamorphic
(4) volcanic
7. Dust and ash entering the atmosphere as a result
of volcanic eruptions can affect Earth’s
(1) tidal activity
(3) weather and climate
(2) rotation and revolution (4) orbital shape
8. Rocks are classified as igneous, metamorphic,
or sedimentary according to:
(1) their color
(3) how they formed
(2) their shape (4) the minerals they contain
9. Rocks formed by heat & pressure are:
(1) igneous
(3) metamorphic
(2) sedimentary
(4) plutonic
10. The chart below compares three types of rocks. The first column gives the rock classification.
Which heading best describes the information provided in the second column?
Rock Classification
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
???
melting and solidification of magma
mechanical, chemical, or organic processes
heat and/or pressure
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Minerals in Rocks
The Value of Rocks
Method of Rock Formation
The Time Rocks Take to Form
11. The diagram below shows three stages in the formation of a beach.
Waves hitting on cliff
A
Cliff eroding
B
Beach Developing
C
Which process is mostly responsible for the breaking down of the rock cliff into sand-sized sediment?
(1) weathering
(3) folding
(2) faulting
(4) precipitation
12. The diagram below shows the rock cycle in
Earth’s crust. Use this rock cycle diagram to fill in
the rock types and method of formation that have
been left blank in the chart below.
13. The diagram below shows a penny
scratching the surface of the mineral calcite.
Direction of
penny movement
Scratch
Calcite
Which physical property of the calcite is
being tested?
(1) streak
(3) melting point
(2) hardness
(4) reaction to acid
14. The way a mineral reflects light is its:
(1) color
(3) luster
(2) streak
(4) density
Rock Type
IGNEOUS
SEDIMENTARY
Metamorphic
Method of Formation
melting and solidification
deposition, compaction,
& cementation
HEAT & PRESSURE
15. All rocks are made of one or more:
(1) sediments (3) minerals
(2) pebbles
(4) fossils
16. The best way to identify a mineral is
by its color.
(1) True (2) False
19. The drawing below shows the original size & shape of a
rock sample before it is thrown into a rapidly moving
stream.
17. The cross section below shows sedimentary
rock layers containing fossils.
Which drawing best shows the actual size and shape
the rock will have after being carried several hundred
miles downstream and deposited?
(1)
(3)
Assuming that these rock layers have
not been overturned, which fossil is in
the layer that was formed most recently?
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
18. Four identical sand castles are shown below.
Which sand castle will most likely be eroded
Fastest by the wind?
20. The diagrams below show a natural process that
weathers rock.
Which statement best explains why this process results in
weathering?
(1) Frozen water acts as a solute.
(2) Water expands when it freezes.
(3) The mass of water increases when it freezes.
(4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. The diagram below shows stages in the development of a certain landscape.
When did erosion become the most dominant process in the development of the landscape shown in stage 4?
(1) at stage 1 (2) between stages 2 and 3 (2) at stage 2 (4) between stages 3 and 4
*Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the reading passage and diagram below:
Amber
Plant
Sap is a substance secreted by some trees. Many years ago,
plants and small animals were caught in the sap on the trees.
Sap hardens and turns into a clear substance called amber.
The plants or animals are preserved as fossils in the amber.
Part of a plant preserved in amber is shown to the right.
TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT
22. Explain why fossils are important to scientists. ___________________________________________
EARTHS PAST
23. Explain why plant fossils found in amber, such as the one shown, are not usually found in volcanic rocks.
______________________________________________________________________________________
VOLCANIC ROCKS ARE IGNEOUS & THE FOSSILS WOULD MELT AWAY.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24. The diagram below shows a cross section of rock layers in Earth’s crust.
The forces shown in the diagram caused the rock layers to:
(1) fault
(2) fold
(3) form (4) expand
25. The cross section below shows fossils and the rock layers in which they are found. Crustal movement has not displaced
the rock layers.
Early Horses
Which fossil is considered the oldest in the
cross section shown?
Dinosaurs
Armored Fish
(1) armored fish
(3) early horses
(2) dinosaurs
(4) trilobites
Trilobites
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26. The diagram below shows a method for determining a physical property of a mineral.
The results are shown for two minerals, galena and calcite.
Galena
Calcite
Which property of the galena and calcite is indicated by the
color of the powder each leaves on the ceramic tile?
Black powder
(1) streak
(2) hardness
(3) reaction to an acid
(4) reaction to a solvent
White powder
Ceramic tile
*Base your answers to questions 27-29 on the diagram
below, which shows how crushed limestone in a test tube
reacts when acid is added.
30. Which two processes could result in the formation
of high mountains with well-rounded peaks?
(1) volcanic eruptions and global warming
(2) earthquakes and tidal activity
(3) collision of crustal plates and erosion
(4) greenhouse gases & weathering
31. A diagram of the rock cycle is shown below.
27. List one observation that shows a chemical
change is occurring in the diagram.
BUBBLES OF CARBON DIOXIDE
_____________________________________
28. What environmental problem in New York
State makes limestone a poor choice to use on
the outside of a building?
HEAVY POLLUTION
______________________________________
29. Which information would be most helpful
to someone trying to identify a mineral sample?
(1) location and mass of the sample
(2) shape and texture of the sample
(3) hardness and streak of the sample
(4) color and size of the sample
a-b. Identify two processes most directly involved in the
formation of an igneous rock.
___________________________________________
MELTING, COOLING
c. What type of rock forms from heat & pressure?
___________________________________________
METAMORPHIC
d-e. Identify two processes required for the formation of
a sedimentary rock.
___________________________________________
WEATHERING, EROSION
32. The diagram below shows tilted rock layers. The dashed
lines represent missing parts of the rock layers.
35. The graph below shows the percentage of five minerals
found in a sample of the igneous rock granite.
Determine the percentage of
orthoclase feldspar in this
sample of granite.
Which process is most likely responsible for the removal of
the missing parts of the rock layers?
(1) erosion
(3) earthquakes
(2) deposition
(4) faulting
33. The table below shows two physical properties
of the minerals quartz and amphibole.
39
36. The diagram below shows a rock suspended above an
overflow container filled with water up to the overflow spout.
A graduated cylinder is positioned next to the container to
collect water that comes out of the overflow spout.
Which property of the rock
can be directly determined
when the rock is placed in
the over-flow container?
Select the physical property from the table that
can distinguish quartz from amphibole &describe
a procedure that can be used to test this property.
Physical property: __________________________
STREAK
Procedure: _______________________________
RUB MINERAL ON PLATE
%
(1) mass
(3) volume
(2) density
(4) hardness
34. In which type of rock is the fossil imprint of
a fern leaf most likely to be found?
(1) igneous
(3) sedimentary
(2) metamorphic
(4) volcanic
38. Which physical property is used to identify a
mineral based on its resistance to being scratched?
(1) hardness
(3) color
(2) density
(4) streak
37. Limestone is a sedimentary rock and marble is a
metamorphic rock. Even though limestone and marble
limestone and marble have the same chemical makeup, they
are classified as different rocks because they:
(1) were formed from different fossils
(2) formed at different times
(3) took different amounts of time to form
(4) formed by different methods
41. The diagram below shows a portion of
Earth’s crust.
39. Which material is primarily a mixture of
weathered rock and organic matter?
(1) minerals
(3) ocean water
(2) soil
(4) seashells
40. Scientists infer that a giant asteroid crashed into
Earth approximately 65 million years ago, contributing
to the extinction of dinosaurs and many other lifeforms. Identify one form of evidence scientists have
found that implies dinosaurs existed in the past.
______________________________________________
FOSSILS OF DINOSAURS HAVE BEEN
DISCOVERED IN ROCK & TAR PITS.
______________________________________________
The formation of the rock fragments was most
likely a result of
(1) cooling
(3) melting
(2) folding
(4) weathering
*Base your answers to questions 42 through 44 on the information below.
Gems & Minerals: There are about 4,000 types of minerals on Earth. Of these, only about
15 are used to make gems. Gems are minerals that may have been cut & polished to make
them sparkle. The diamond is the hardest natural substance we know. Diamonds form deep
underground at very high temperature & pressure conditions caused by the overlying thick
layers of rock that squeeze the carbon atoms into a tight, strong crystal. Diamonds might
grow under these conditions for 1 billion to 3 billion years & therefore are considered the
oldest gemstone. Only about 20 percent of diamonds are made into jewels. Because they are
so hard, most diamonds are used to make tools such as dental drills & metal cutters.
42. Explain why hardness is a valuable property of some minerals.
________________________________________________________________________________________
THEY ARE USED TO MAKE TOOLS & OTHER USEFUL
PRODUCTS BECAUSE OF THEIR HARDNESS.
________________________________________________________________________________________
43. Identify one physical property, other than hardness, that may add to the beauty of a gemstone.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
ITS COLOR, LUSTER & CRYSTAL SHAPE.,
44. When diamonds are shipped to jewelry stores, they are individually wrapped in paper. Explain why the paper
is needed to protect each diamond from damage.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
BECAUSE THEY CAN SCRATCH EACH OTHER.
45. The sequence below occurs over a long period of geologic time.
The sequence shows the steps involved in the formation of
(1) an element
(3) a fault
(2) an igneous rock
(4) a fossil
*Base your answers to questions 46 through 48 on the table of mineral properties below.
46. Identify the mineral in the table that is hard, has a black streak, and has no reaction with acid.
______________________________
HORNBLENDE
47. Compared to the chalcopyrite, which property of galena is different? ______________________________
GALENA IS SOFT
48. Describe the test for determining the streak of most minerals. ______________________________
RUB MINERAL SAMPLE ON A STREAK
PLATE & OBSERVE THE POWDER.

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