Kirk Bridgewood, DETS - Waste Derived Fuels

Waste Derived Fuels
NERF, 6th June 2013
Kirk Bridgewood
Derwentside Environmental Testing Services
DETS – dependable data, dependable delivery
o Introduction
o What is the difference between RDF and
o What legislation covers WDFs
o Why do I need to test WDFs- what is
o How do I sample a WDF
o What are the markets for WDFs
o How to ensure a consistent quality /
specification for a WDF
Waste Derived Fuel (WDF)
a heterogeneous
group of nonhazardous wastes
that do not cease
to be such by virtue
of their being used
to generate energy
without greater
impact than
landfill disposal
• Many views, both positive and negative however:
– Recovering energy from waste is playing an
increasing role in generating ‘low carbon’ energy
and will support achievement of the UK’s target
of 15% of its energy from renewable sources by
2020. (WRAP, 2012)
– ‘Government supports efficient energy recovery
from residual waste which can deliver
environmental benefits, reduce carbon impacts
and provide economic opportunities. Our aim is to
get the most energy out of waste, not to get the
most waste into energy’.
What legislation covers WDFs
• Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations
• The Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) 2010/75/EU
– The Waste Incineration Directive (WID) has been recast
within the IED. Provisions relating to gasification and
pyrolysis have been introduced.
• Revised Waste Framework Directive (2008)
– Recognises recovery, and EfW and places efficiency
standards on EfW plants (R1) that requires the use of
heat energy produced.
Revised waste hierarchy
Releasing the
energy bound
within this waste
(which would
otherwise go to
landfill) is a sensible
and sustainable
What is the difference between RDF and SRF?
• RDF - refers to a combustible, moderate Calorific Value (CV) waste
fraction (e.g. paper, card, wood, and plastic) produced by the
mechanical treatment of municipal or similar commercial / industrial
Limited processing
No quality management system
Limited quality control
Typical markets include EfW in the UK and Europe
• SRF as with RDF but prepared to a quality specification e.g. CEN 343
– Using quality management techniques
• An SRF is not necessarily higher specification fuel than RDF, but there is
greater consistency in the properties required
Why do I need to test WDFs
and what’s involved
Testing WDFs
• WDFs are defined by their physical and
chemical properties.
– Determination of chemical properties in
particular required testing
• Properties that define WDFs are often
grouped into economic, technical and
environmental and include:
Gross and Net Calorific Value
Moisture Content
Ash Content
Volatile Matter
Elemental analysis
Metals analysis
Bulk Density
Particle Size Distribution
Composition (percentage
paper, metals, plastic etc.)
Biomass content
Ash melting properties
Mechanical Durability
WDF testing in practice
Sample preparation
• Mass reduction
• Size reduction
Key properties
• Moisture
• Bulk Density
• Calorific Value
• Biomass
• Metals
• Chlorine
How do I sample WDFs for testing?
Importance of Sampling
1000 tonnes
Why Do We Need a Sampling Plan ?
To give a consistent approach and repeatability
of samples
Analysis is carried out on a representative sample.
Which in turn allows
Classification of WDF materials for end users
Prevention of rejected loads and give confidence in
supplied materials to end users.
1 gram
Sampling Plan design
Four elements to designing and
undertaking sampling of WDF:
1. Sample size
2. Number of samples
3. Method for collecting
4. When and where to collect
Adapted from BS 15442:2011 for WRAP WDF
What are the markets for WDFs?
WDF Markets
Users of WDF’s
EfW plants (UK and Europe)
Heating and Power Plants1
Cement Kilns
Lime Kilns
Iron and Steel Production
Non-ferrous Metal Production
Brick Production
• Important to note that the above users (exc. Small scale
unit) typically charge a gate fee.
small scale CHP units for individual companies
How RDF and SRF compare
Physiochemical properties
Net Calorific Value MJ/Kg
Increased cost in
processing is
balanced out by
reduction in gate
fee and could be
argued - has more
market potential
Moisture Content wt/wt %
Ash Content wt/wt %
7 -16
18 - 50
5- 20
Bulk Density kg/m3
Other Heavy Metals mg/Kg (list of
WID / ID metals)
Chlorine wt/wt%
Economic factors
Gate fee (per tonne)
Processing costs (raw feed to final
fuel) per tonne
Difference taking into account
processing and gate fees combined
Important to note – figures used are only estimated . Specification values are taken from
what DETS have tested reference to the type of material specified by the labelling.
How to bench mark WDFs
Classification schemes
• Quality management assurance and classification
– CEN 343 sets out quality control and
classification system
– WRAP recently launched a WDF classification
– Both systems group WDF properties into three
• Economic
• Environmental
• Technical (operational)
WRAP classification system
‘A Classification
Scheme to
Define the
Quality of Waste
Derived Fuels’
WRAP classification system
WRAP classification system
Any Questions?
Contact Details:
Derwentside Environmental Testing Services Ltd
Unit 2, Park Road Industrial Estate
Consett Co Durham
Tel: +44 (0)1207 582333
Email: [email protected]

similar documents