Adoption of Hermetic Storage for Cowpea by Farmers in West and

Report
Adoption of Hermetic
Storage for Cowpea in
West & Central Africa
in 2012.
B. Moussa, O. Coulibaly, T.
Abdoulaye, D. Baributsa and J.
Lowenberg-DeBoer
Objectives:
• Determine the proportion of cowpea stored on
farms by type hermetic storage.
• Estimate proportion of rural households using
hermetic storage
• Identify the major barriers to use of hermetic
storage for cowpea used on farms
Methods:
• Stratified random sample of villages, with the
proportion of PICS villages determined by the
proportion of PICS villages in the overall cowpea
zone.
• Random selection of household heads in sample
villages.
• Face-to-face interviews
• Overall statistics calculated with weights
determined solely by number of PICS and nonPICS villages.
Sample Size
Country
Numbers of PICS
Villages
Number of Non
PICS Villages
Total Sample Size Numbers of farmers
(number of
interviewed
Villages)
Nigeria
10666
19204
122
1220
Mali
2111
3413
20
200
Ghana
2000
NA yet
22
220
Cameroon
1465
1910
18
180
Chad
904
2020
14
150
Benin
896
1204
30
300
Togo
1000
1095
30
300
Senegal
1783
1743
15
150
50
Niger and Burkina Faso: Storage
Methods
Used
Farmers
2009
Storage Methods
Usedby
by Farmers
for 2009in
Cowpea
45
40
38
30
30
25
29
25
18
10
20
22
29
18
7
6
2
1
0
6
Burkina Faso
Other Hermetic
Traditional
Niger DT
Double bag
Insecticide
Niger MZT
Triple bag
Niger, Nigeria and Burkina Faso 2009 :
Availability is Key Constraint
100
Use other methods
Price
Availability
80
Percentages
Others
70
65
60
68
64
57
56
54
40
20
Low production
30
12 14
29
8
4 3
6
0
Niger DT
19
17
Niger MZT
8
16
16
9
8
1 0
1
4
7
1 3
2
Burkina Faso Nigeria-Jigawa Nigeria-Kano Nigeria-Katsina
Figure 2. Reason for non-adoption of PICS technology in Niger, Burkina Faso and Nigeria. Source: Studies on adoption of
PICS bags in 2010 in Niger, Burkina Faso and Nigeria
Average distance to nearest PICS retailer was
5.8 km in Niger DT and over 13 km in Niger MZT.
Nigeria: Storage Methods Used by
Farmers 2011 Harvest
40
20
14
14
4
6
0
Percentages
60
62
Doublebag
Insecticide
Other
Triplebag
Drum
 Total hermetic storage 32%
 “Insecticide” here is pesticide in ordinary woven bags
 Insecticide pervasive in Nigeria, used in most double bags
and even some triple bags
Nigeria 2011 : Availability is Key
Constraint for Triple Bag Non-adopters
52
45
20
40
60
80
77
12
2
1
4
6
3
0
2
NPICS
Availability
Information
Other method
PICS
Low Production
Cost
 “Availability” cited as a key constraint even in some villages close to
Kano
 Media and word-of-mouth has reached only about half of
respondents in non-PICS villages; demonstrations still important.
40
Mali: Storage Methods Used by
Farmers for 2011 Harvest
36
20
10
12
10
5
3
0
Percentages
30
34
DoubleBag
Jug
Insecticide
TripleBag
Drum
Other
 TB adoption relatively low but overall hermetic is 61%
 “Other” includes ordinary woven bags, pots, ash, etc.
Mali 2011 : Information is Key Constraint
for Triple Bag non Adopters
45
40
37
20
31
21
15
5 6
2 2
0
Percentages of Respondent
60
58
NPICS
Availability
Information
Other Method
PICS
Low Production
Cost
 Information is key constraint but Availability is still a
problem
Cameroon: Storage Methods Used by
Farmers for 2011 Harvest
40
20
12
12
4
7
0
Percentages
60
65
DoubleBag
Insecticide
Other
TripleBag
Drum
 “Other” includes woven sacks, pots, ash, etc.
 Total hermetic is 23% of quantity stored on farms
Cameroon 2011 : Information is Key
Constraint for Triple Bag Non-adopters
60
40
40
20
28
20
14
16
8
3
0
Percentages of respondent
80
75
NPICS
Availability
Information
PICS
Low Production
OtherMethod
 Like in Mali Information is key but availability is still a problem
Chad: Storage Methods Used by
Farmers for 2011 Harvest
40
20
18
15
5
1
0
Percentages
60
61
DoubleBag
Insect.icide
Other
TripleBag
Drum
 Results similar to in Cameroon but triple bag slightly higher
 Total hermetic is 24%
Nigeria, Mali, Cameroon and Chad:
Storage Methods Used for 2011 Harvest
65
62
40
60
61
36
34
20
18
1212
12
5
1
1414
10
4 6
5
3
0
4
7
15
Cameroon
Chad
Doublebag
Insecticide
Drum
Mali
Nigeria
Triplebag
Jug
Other
 Simple average for these four countries for total hermetic is 35%. Next step is
calculating weighted average to allow for differences in cowpea production levels.
 Regional total hermetic percentage will be pulled up by the 70% in Niger and
Burkina.
Nigeria, Mali and Cameroon 2011 Harvest :
80
Key Constraints among Triple Bag Non-adopters
77
75
60
58
52
20
40
45
31
28
20
15
14
22
2
16
21
12
56
21
4
63
0
3
8
45
37
40
Cameroon
Mali
Nigeria
NPICS
Cameroon
Mali
PICS
Availability
Information
Other method
Low Production
Cost
 Bag availability is key constraint, especially in Nigeria.
 Information still a major constraint, especially in non-PICS villages.
Nigeria
Conclusions
• Preliminary 2011 harvest adoption results for
Nigeria, Cameroon, Mali and Chad:
–
–
–
–
Total hermetic in range of 23% to 61% of quantity
Triple bag use ranges from 12% to 18%
Availability key constraint for non-adopters in Nigeria
Information still key constraint especially for non-PICS
villages
• PICS 50% goal reached for some countries (e.g.
Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali).
• Regional hermetic storage percentage depends
on data for remaining countries.
THANK YOU

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