Presentation - Academic Affairs

Report
Academic Administrators Leadership Seminars
New Administrators Orientation
Managing for Diversity &
Issues in Recruiting
Luisa Amelia Dempere, Ph.D.
Chair, UF President’s Council on Diversity
Outline
o Diversity AND Inclusion: Core Understanding
o Historical Perspective and Facts
o What does research shows?
o Lessons learned?
o The Inclusive Model - How do we get there?
o The Business Case for D&I
o Legal Issues in Recruiting
Inclusion
Diversity
Law
Diversity without inclusion, will not work.
Title VII of the
Civil Rights Act
of 1964
Executive Order
11246
Age Discrimination
in Employment Act
of 1967
Title IX of the
Education
Amendments of
1972
Americans with
Disabilities Act
of 1990
Equal Pay Act
of 1963
LAWS
~
COMPLIANCE
Vocational
Rehabilitation
Act of 1973
Fair Labor
Standards Act
of 1938
Genetic
Information
Nondiscrimination
Act of 2008
Pregnancy
Discrimination
Act of 1978
Immigration
Reform &
Control Act of
1986
Uniformed
Services
Employment &
Reemployment
Rights Act of 1994
Equal Employment
Opportunity
The enforcement of
statutes to prevent
employment
discrimination
Affirmative Action
The effort to achieve
parity in the workforce
through outreach and
eliminating barriers in
hiring
Civil Rights to Full Inclusion
Inclusive
Workplace
15 years
13 years
12 years
Managing Diversity
Diversity
Equal Employment Opportunity
Affirmative Action
Civil Rights Movement
<<<
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Adapted from Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
2005
>>>
Other way to “see” it...
Society for Human Resource Management
Defining Inclusion
“The achievement of a work environment in which all individuals are
treated fairly and respectfully, have equal access to opportunities and
resources, and can contribute fully to the organization’s success.” - Society
for Human Resource Management
“Inclusion puts the concept and practice of diversity into action by
creating an environment of involvement, respect, and connection—
where the richness of ideas, backgrounds, and perspectives are
harnessed to create business value.” - Profiles in Diversity Journal
“Inclusion means a work environment where everyone
has an opportunity to fully participate in creating
business success and where each person is valued for his
or her distinctive skills, experiences and perspectives.”
-HP Corporate
“Inclusion is a sense of belonging: feeling respected, valued for who
you are; feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from
others so than you can do your best work.” - Miller and Katz
Defining Inclusion
•
By 2042, there will be no single demographic majority; we will be “majority
minority”.
•
By 2050, 1 in 5 people living in the US will be Hispanic.
•
There are currently 4 generations in the workplace; soon to be 5.
•
Disabilities affect 20 percent of all Americans.
•
Women earn the majority of college degrees awarded in the United States.
•
There are an estimated 9 million LGBT individuals in the U.S.
•
Diverse workforces in culturally competent orgs have the highest employee
engagement, which in turn leads to higher performance and productivity.
References: US Census Bureau; The Gallup Organization. Employee Discrimination
in the Workplace, Public Opinion Poll - Sirota Survey.
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
What Does the Research Show?
Diverse teams are more creative and
perform better in problem solving than
homogeneous teams.
What is the functional value of diversity?
What is the functional value of homogeneity?
[1] Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off
Does homogeneity works towards the organization business case:
• Innovation
• Retention
• Morale
• Productivity, etc. ?[1]
People in homogeneous groups tend to have blind spots in judgment and behavior as
they assume that others are like them in terms of having similar perspectives,
knowledge, and behavior...
Studies have shown diverse teams...
• promote creativity
• foster critical thinking
• tend to make better, more thoughtful
decisions because they consider a wider
range of perspectives.
Other studies indicate diverse teams...
• fuel interpersonal conflicts
• reduce cohesion
• slow the pace of working or learning.
“321 companies with more than $500 million in revenue, 85% agree or strongly agree
that diversity is key to driving innovation in the workplace” – Forbes 2011
Faculty Diversity
An article published in The Academy of
Management Journal examined the impact
of group diversity on academic
performance.
For the study, the researchers defined
diversity by cultural identification.
They created 19 culturally diverse groups
and 17 culturally homogenous groups
composed of white-Americans
(Cultural Diversity's Impact On Interaction Process and
Performance: Comparing Homogeneous and Diverse Task
Groups)
At the end the diverse teams had surpassed
the homogenous groups in overall
performance. In fact, the diverse groups far
exceeded the homogenous groups in the
“Alternatives generated” (read: innovation)
score.
What Does the Research Show?
• Diversity in workforce and processes
results in better decision-making.
• The effects of diversity are highly
dependent on the presence of facilitating
or inhibiting conditions in the
organization...
Absent facilitating conditions (inclusion)
the aforementioned outcomes are
reversed.
Diversity without inclusion, will not work.
The flip side…
EEO
Average EEO complaint costs approximately
$60,000 (administrative process) up to $250,000
(including settlement/damages).
25-40% of workforce attrition rate and 5-20% in
lost productivity can be attributed to poor
diversity management
turnover costs 75-150% of the replaced
employee’s salary.
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Lessons Learned...?
[1] Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off
NASA
Columbia Accident
2003
An organization could be “diverse” and still not be inclusive.
Lessons Learned
NASA
“Organizational culture refers to the values, norms, beliefs, and
practices that characterize the functioning of a particular institution.”
Causes that contributed to the Columbia accident included:
An organizational culture that censored dissent.
A performance culture that hushes differences of opinion.
Resistance to external criticism and doubt.
Imposition of the “party line vision … [which] led to flawed
decision-making, self-deception, introversion, and diminished
curiosity.”
Organizational barriers that prevented open, effective
communication.*
*Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report, 2003.
Lessons Learned
Scientific Community: NASA
NASA has since
implemented one
of the strongest
diversity management
programs in Federal
government.
http://odeo.hq.nasa.gov/documents/diversityInclusion.pdf
NASA needs to be reflective of the diversity of America at all
levels of the organization.
Fully integrate diversity and
inclusion into the strategic decision
making of the Agency to enhance
organizational effectiveness, help
achieve mission goals, and meet
the challenges that lie ahead.
Strategically utilize and expand
workforce talents, skills, and
opportunities to maximize
individual potential and
productivity Agency wide.
http://odeo.hq.nasa.gov/documents/diversityInclusion.pdf
Lehman Brothers
Bankruptcy
2009
Organizations need both diversity and inclusion to be successful.
-Profiles in Diversity Journal
Lessons Learned
Economic Community: Lehman Bros.
“A culture that is too strong can also end up too rigid and can shut out diversity,
especially diversity of perspective.”*
Issues leading to its bankruptcy and one of the worst economic meltdowns of the
20th century:
Insular organization.
Narrow decision-making; failure to gain broad input/perspective.
Outmoded, embedded cultural habits.
Hoarding information.
Misuse of talent.
Rigid, inflexible culture.
*Hope Greenfield. “Culture Crash” The Conference Board Review, Fall, 2009.
[1] Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off
Lessons Learned
Economic Community: Lehman Bros.
Many of these issues are identical to those that
led to Enron’s failure a decade earlier.
Global corporations are spending $8 billion a
year in creating an inclusive culture...[1]
6 Inclusion Dimensions
As identified through empirical research
• Fairness of Employment Practices
(Rules and Procedures)
• Fairness of Employment Practices
(Performance Evaluations)
• Inclusion/Participation in Decision-Making
• Inclusive Management and Leadership
• Information Access/Open Communication
• Integration of Differences
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Cultural
Proficiency
Cultural Competence
Cultural Pre-competence
differences ignored, treats
Cultural Blindness everyone the same, only
responds to needs of
dominant group.
Cultural Incapacity
racism, maintains stereotypes,
unfair hiring practices.
forced assimilation, subjugation, rights and
Cultural
Destructiveness privileges for dominant groups only.
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Cultural Pre-competence
The organization explores cultural issues, is committed to
assess needs of organization and individuals.
Adapted from Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Cultural Competence
recognize individual and cultural differences, seeks advice
from diverse groups, hires unbiased staff.
Cultural Proficiency
implements change to respond to cultural needs, does research
and teaches cultural competence.
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Leadership Mindset:
• Recognize your bias
(Harvard Bias Impact Analysis Test)
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Leadership Mindset:
• Challenge assumptions; abandon preconceived
notions.
• Open your mind to new, untested ideas;
consider alternatives.
• Shared leadership: power and accountability
must flow down
• Sharing power does not mean abdicating
responsibility.
How do we get there?
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Organizational Processes:
• Re-engineer business processes:
Design for processes that can yield more than one
solution
(this is counter-intuitive so you must be deliberate).
• Use interdisciplinary teams; encourage divergent
thought.
• Don’t fear creative tension; consider it constructive
conflict.
• Align personnel rewards systems accordingly.
• Matrix management.
http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/#681
How do we get there?
Management Mindset:
Some of the management skills needed are:
• an understanding and acceptance of managing
diversity concepts
• recognition that diversity is threaded through every
aspect of management
• self-awareness, in terms of understanding your own
culture, identity, biases, prejudices, and stereotypes
• willingness to challenge and change organizational
practices that present barriers to different groups
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
– Cultural competency training.
– Conflict management training for managers
and employees.
– Mentoring/coaching
– Diversity focused internships as part of
organizational and personnel development
– D&I embedded in leadership development
programs.
“the benefits of diversity are not automatic and do not simply
occur from a diverse campus.
(Milem, Chang, & Antonio).
Individual
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
• Self-actualization.
• Self-empowerment.
• Personal development.
• Career enhancement.
Team
• Cognitive diversity leads to
better problem-solving and
decision-making.
• Maximized innovation and
productivity on complex tasks.
• Improved communication skills
and the ability to work
productively in teams.
Organizational
• Access to a new range of
competencies.
• Increased flexibility,
adaptability, and proactivity.
• Access to a diverse range of
resources translating into
bottom line results.
• External recognition as an
employer of choice.
• Increased knowledge of
diversity issues
• Fewer grievances, complaints,
and lawsuits.
• Less staff turnover,
absenteeism.
• Increased productivity and cost
savings.
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Synergy for a High-Performing
Organization
High
Performance
Equity
Diversity
Organizational
Inclusion
Organizational
Structures
Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Learning &
Career
Development
Opportunities
Communications
Work Life
Work
Assignments
Inclusive
Environment
Business
Processes
Mentoring &
Coaching
Recruitment
& Selection
Processes
Performance
Management
Leadership
Accountability
Issues in Recruitment
IT’S THE LAW!
Title VII of the
Civil Rights Act
of 1964
Executive Order
11246
Age Discrimination
in Employment Act
of 1967
Title IX of the
Education
Amendments of 1972
Americans with
Disabilities Act
of 1990
Equal Pay Act
of 1963
OPEN AND
COMPETITIVE
FACULTY
RECRUITMENT
Vocational
Rehabilitation Act
of 1973
Fair Labor
Standards Act of
1938
Genetic Information
Nondiscrimination
Act of 2008
Pregnancy
Discrimination Act
of 1978
Immigration
Reform &
Control Act of
1986
Uniformed Services
Employment &
Reemployment
Rights Act of 1994
IT’S THE LAW!
• It is illegal to discriminate against an applicant or
employee because of that person’s race, color, religion,
sex, national origin, age, disability or genetic information.
• It is also illegal:

To publish job advertisements that show a preference for
or discourages someone from applying for a job based on
the above-referenced reasons.

To make decisions about job assignments and promotions
based on the above-referenced reasons.

To discriminate against an employee in the payment of
wages or employee benefits on the above-referenced
reasons.
SYSTEMIC
DISCRIMINATION
• Involves a pattern or practice, policy, or class case where the
alleged discrimination has a broad impact on an industry,
profession or employer.
Examples of systemic discrimination:
 Discriminatory barriers in recruitment or hiring.
 Discriminatory restricted access to management trainee
programs and to high level jobs.
 Exclusion of qualified women from traditionally male
dominated fields of work.
 Disability discrimination such as unlawful pre-employment
inquiries.
 Age discrimination in reductions in force and retirement
benefits.
MYTHS ABOUT HIRING
A DIVERSE FACULTY
• Relatively few qualified women or minority candidates are
available, and these are highly sought-after, so we are unlikely to
recruit them.

Data (Ford Foundation) suggest that minorities are not sought-after:
 Minority Postdocs: 54% never approached by any institution.
• We only use quality as a criterion for hiring… adding diversity
will therefore compromise quality.


Hiring a more diverse faculty will improve quality, not compromise it.
More heterogeneous groups have greater creativity, bring wider
range of viewpoints to an academic endeavor.
• We are doing everything we can, so the situation is already the
best it can be. The problem is all due to older long-term faculty,
so once they die/retire, things will automatically improve.
NON-COMPLIANCE
LIABILITIES
• Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
 Authority to cancel, terminate or suspend federal contracts and
awards in whole or in part for failure of the contractor or
subcontractor to comply with the nondiscrimination provisions
of the contract.

Authority to declare UF ineligible for further federal contracts
or extensions or other modifications of existing contracts.
• U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
 Authority to award compensatory and punitive damages to a
complainant (depending on the size of the employer (over 500
employees – limit is $300,000).
BUSINESS CASE
FACULTY DIVERSITY
• An effective faculty diversity program fosters an academic
community that reflects a diverse range of interests,
abilities, life experiences and worldviews that enhance the
academic mission of the University of Florida.
• An effective faculty diversity program supports the
equality of opportunity which ensures that the University
of Florida can fully utilize the intellectual resources
embedded in our diversity and maintain our legitimacy as
a public university receiving federal funds.
BUSINESS CASE
FACULTY DIVERSITY
• A diverse faculty reduces the probability of
‘groupthinking’ where pressure to conform within a group
can prevent good decision making as independent
thinking is lost.
• A diverse faculty creates a greater engagement of a full
range of differences in producing the synergies that
leads to breakthroughs in productivity and innovations.
• A diverse faculty provides a broader pool of skills,
talents and perspectives to draw from for problemsolving and organizational success.
UF’s Diversity Action Plan
Proposed Actions
Administrators are accountable for creating and
maintaining a climate of inclusion within their college
and academic units.
– Each policy, procedure, program or practice
implemented should reflect the principles and
objectives of UF Regulation 1.0006, UF Nondiscrimination policy.
• Promote developing faculty exchange program with
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
and Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs).
• Promote establishing contacts with counterparts at
HBCUs and HSIs for potential faculty recruitment.
UF’s Diversity Action Plan
Proposed Actions
• Incorporate experience working in a diverse
environment or with diverse population part of the
job announcement.
• Incorporate diversity experience related questions in
the interview questions.
Reading suggestions...
“When we feel a sense of belonging
it is not because we are the same
as everyone else, but because we
have been accepted as we are.”
THANK YOU!

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