Academic Administrators Leadership Seminars New Administrators Orientation Managing for Diversity & Issues in Recruiting Luisa Amelia Dempere, Ph.D. Chair, UF President’s Council on Diversity Outline o Diversity AND Inclusion: Core Understanding o Historical Perspective and Facts o What does research shows? o Lessons learned? o The Inclusive Model - How do we get there? o The Business Case for D&I o Legal Issues in Recruiting Inclusion Diversity Law Diversity without inclusion, will not work. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Executive Order 11246 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Equal Pay Act of 1963 LAWS ~ COMPLIANCE Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Immigration Reform & Control Act of 1986 Uniformed Services Employment & Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 Equal Employment Opportunity The enforcement of statutes to prevent employment discrimination Affirmative Action The effort to achieve parity in the workforce through outreach and eliminating barriers in hiring Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Inclusive Workplace 15 years 13 years 12 years Managing Diversity Diversity Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Civil Rights Movement <<< 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Adapted from Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs 2005 >>> Other way to “see” it... Society for Human Resource Management Defining Inclusion “The achievement of a work environment in which all individuals are treated fairly and respectfully, have equal access to opportunities and resources, and can contribute fully to the organization’s success.” - Society for Human Resource Management “Inclusion puts the concept and practice of diversity into action by creating an environment of involvement, respect, and connection— where the richness of ideas, backgrounds, and perspectives are harnessed to create business value.” - Profiles in Diversity Journal “Inclusion means a work environment where everyone has an opportunity to fully participate in creating business success and where each person is valued for his or her distinctive skills, experiences and perspectives.” -HP Corporate “Inclusion is a sense of belonging: feeling respected, valued for who you are; feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from others so than you can do your best work.” - Miller and Katz Defining Inclusion • By 2042, there will be no single demographic majority; we will be “majority minority”. • By 2050, 1 in 5 people living in the US will be Hispanic. • There are currently 4 generations in the workplace; soon to be 5. • Disabilities affect 20 percent of all Americans. • Women earn the majority of college degrees awarded in the United States. • There are an estimated 9 million LGBT individuals in the U.S. • Diverse workforces in culturally competent orgs have the highest employee engagement, which in turn leads to higher performance and productivity. References: US Census Bureau; The Gallup Organization. Employee Discrimination in the Workplace, Public Opinion Poll - Sirota Survey. Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs What Does the Research Show? Diverse teams are more creative and perform better in problem solving than homogeneous teams. What is the functional value of diversity? What is the functional value of homogeneity?  Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off Does homogeneity works towards the organization business case: • Innovation • Retention • Morale • Productivity, etc. ? People in homogeneous groups tend to have blind spots in judgment and behavior as they assume that others are like them in terms of having similar perspectives, knowledge, and behavior... Studies have shown diverse teams... • promote creativity • foster critical thinking • tend to make better, more thoughtful decisions because they consider a wider range of perspectives. Other studies indicate diverse teams... • fuel interpersonal conflicts • reduce cohesion • slow the pace of working or learning. “321 companies with more than $500 million in revenue, 85% agree or strongly agree that diversity is key to driving innovation in the workplace” – Forbes 2011 Faculty Diversity An article published in The Academy of Management Journal examined the impact of group diversity on academic performance. For the study, the researchers defined diversity by cultural identification. They created 19 culturally diverse groups and 17 culturally homogenous groups composed of white-Americans (Cultural Diversity's Impact On Interaction Process and Performance: Comparing Homogeneous and Diverse Task Groups) At the end the diverse teams had surpassed the homogenous groups in overall performance. In fact, the diverse groups far exceeded the homogenous groups in the “Alternatives generated” (read: innovation) score. What Does the Research Show? • Diversity in workforce and processes results in better decision-making. • The effects of diversity are highly dependent on the presence of facilitating or inhibiting conditions in the organization... Absent facilitating conditions (inclusion) the aforementioned outcomes are reversed. Diversity without inclusion, will not work. The flip side… EEO Average EEO complaint costs approximately $60,000 (administrative process) up to $250,000 (including settlement/damages). 25-40% of workforce attrition rate and 5-20% in lost productivity can be attributed to poor diversity management turnover costs 75-150% of the replaced employee’s salary. Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Lessons Learned...?  Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off NASA Columbia Accident 2003 An organization could be “diverse” and still not be inclusive. Lessons Learned NASA “Organizational culture refers to the values, norms, beliefs, and practices that characterize the functioning of a particular institution.” Causes that contributed to the Columbia accident included: An organizational culture that censored dissent. A performance culture that hushes differences of opinion. Resistance to external criticism and doubt. Imposition of the “party line vision … [which] led to flawed decision-making, self-deception, introversion, and diminished curiosity.” Organizational barriers that prevented open, effective communication.* *Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report, 2003. Lessons Learned Scientific Community: NASA NASA has since implemented one of the strongest diversity management programs in Federal government. http://odeo.hq.nasa.gov/documents/diversityInclusion.pdf NASA needs to be reflective of the diversity of America at all levels of the organization. Fully integrate diversity and inclusion into the strategic decision making of the Agency to enhance organizational effectiveness, help achieve mission goals, and meet the challenges that lie ahead. Strategically utilize and expand workforce talents, skills, and opportunities to maximize individual potential and productivity Agency wide. http://odeo.hq.nasa.gov/documents/diversityInclusion.pdf Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy 2009 Organizations need both diversity and inclusion to be successful. -Profiles in Diversity Journal Lessons Learned Economic Community: Lehman Bros. “A culture that is too strong can also end up too rigid and can shut out diversity, especially diversity of perspective.”* Issues leading to its bankruptcy and one of the worst economic meltdowns of the 20th century: Insular organization. Narrow decision-making; failure to gain broad input/perspective. Outmoded, embedded cultural habits. Hoarding information. Misuse of talent. Rigid, inflexible culture. *Hope Greenfield. “Culture Crash” The Conference Board Review, Fall, 2009.  Donovan, Mason; Kaplan, Mark (2013) The Inclusion Dividend: Why Investing in Diversity and Inclusion Pays Off Lessons Learned Economic Community: Lehman Bros. Many of these issues are identical to those that led to Enron’s failure a decade earlier. Global corporations are spending $8 billion a year in creating an inclusive culture... 6 Inclusion Dimensions As identified through empirical research • Fairness of Employment Practices (Rules and Procedures) • Fairness of Employment Practices (Performance Evaluations) • Inclusion/Participation in Decision-Making • Inclusive Management and Leadership • Information Access/Open Communication • Integration of Differences Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Cultural Proficiency Cultural Competence Cultural Pre-competence differences ignored, treats Cultural Blindness everyone the same, only responds to needs of dominant group. Cultural Incapacity racism, maintains stereotypes, unfair hiring practices. forced assimilation, subjugation, rights and Cultural Destructiveness privileges for dominant groups only. Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Cultural Pre-competence The organization explores cultural issues, is committed to assess needs of organization and individuals. Adapted from Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Cultural Competence recognize individual and cultural differences, seeks advice from diverse groups, hires unbiased staff. Cultural Proficiency implements change to respond to cultural needs, does research and teaches cultural competence. Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Leadership Mindset: • Recognize your bias (Harvard Bias Impact Analysis Test) Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Leadership Mindset: • Challenge assumptions; abandon preconceived notions. • Open your mind to new, untested ideas; consider alternatives. • Shared leadership: power and accountability must flow down • Sharing power does not mean abdicating responsibility. How do we get there? Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Organizational Processes: • Re-engineer business processes: Design for processes that can yield more than one solution (this is counter-intuitive so you must be deliberate). • Use interdisciplinary teams; encourage divergent thought. • Don’t fear creative tension; consider it constructive conflict. • Align personnel rewards systems accordingly. • Matrix management. http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/#681 How do we get there? Management Mindset: Some of the management skills needed are: • an understanding and acceptance of managing diversity concepts • recognition that diversity is threaded through every aspect of management • self-awareness, in terms of understanding your own culture, identity, biases, prejudices, and stereotypes • willingness to challenge and change organizational practices that present barriers to different groups Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs – Cultural competency training. – Conflict management training for managers and employees. – Mentoring/coaching – Diversity focused internships as part of organizational and personnel development – D&I embedded in leadership development programs. “the benefits of diversity are not automatic and do not simply occur from a diverse campus. (Milem, Chang, & Antonio). Individual Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs • Self-actualization. • Self-empowerment. • Personal development. • Career enhancement. Team • Cognitive diversity leads to better problem-solving and decision-making. • Maximized innovation and productivity on complex tasks. • Improved communication skills and the ability to work productively in teams. Organizational • Access to a new range of competencies. • Increased flexibility, adaptability, and proactivity. • Access to a diverse range of resources translating into bottom line results. • External recognition as an employer of choice. • Increased knowledge of diversity issues • Fewer grievances, complaints, and lawsuits. • Less staff turnover, absenteeism. • Increased productivity and cost savings. Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Synergy for a High-Performing Organization High Performance Equity Diversity Organizational Inclusion Organizational Structures Georgia Coffey – The Inclusion Paradigm – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Learning & Career Development Opportunities Communications Work Life Work Assignments Inclusive Environment Business Processes Mentoring & Coaching Recruitment & Selection Processes Performance Management Leadership Accountability Issues in Recruitment IT’S THE LAW! Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Executive Order 11246 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Equal Pay Act of 1963 OPEN AND COMPETITIVE FACULTY RECRUITMENT Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Immigration Reform & Control Act of 1986 Uniformed Services Employment & Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 IT’S THE LAW! • It is illegal to discriminate against an applicant or employee because of that person’s race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability or genetic information. • It is also illegal: To publish job advertisements that show a preference for or discourages someone from applying for a job based on the above-referenced reasons. To make decisions about job assignments and promotions based on the above-referenced reasons. To discriminate against an employee in the payment of wages or employee benefits on the above-referenced reasons. SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION • Involves a pattern or practice, policy, or class case where the alleged discrimination has a broad impact on an industry, profession or employer. Examples of systemic discrimination: Discriminatory barriers in recruitment or hiring. Discriminatory restricted access to management trainee programs and to high level jobs. Exclusion of qualified women from traditionally male dominated fields of work. Disability discrimination such as unlawful pre-employment inquiries. Age discrimination in reductions in force and retirement benefits. MYTHS ABOUT HIRING A DIVERSE FACULTY • Relatively few qualified women or minority candidates are available, and these are highly sought-after, so we are unlikely to recruit them. Data (Ford Foundation) suggest that minorities are not sought-after: Minority Postdocs: 54% never approached by any institution. • We only use quality as a criterion for hiring… adding diversity will therefore compromise quality. Hiring a more diverse faculty will improve quality, not compromise it. More heterogeneous groups have greater creativity, bring wider range of viewpoints to an academic endeavor. • We are doing everything we can, so the situation is already the best it can be. The problem is all due to older long-term faculty, so once they die/retire, things will automatically improve. NON-COMPLIANCE LIABILITIES • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) Authority to cancel, terminate or suspend federal contracts and awards in whole or in part for failure of the contractor or subcontractor to comply with the nondiscrimination provisions of the contract. Authority to declare UF ineligible for further federal contracts or extensions or other modifications of existing contracts. • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Authority to award compensatory and punitive damages to a complainant (depending on the size of the employer (over 500 employees – limit is $300,000). BUSINESS CASE FACULTY DIVERSITY • An effective faculty diversity program fosters an academic community that reflects a diverse range of interests, abilities, life experiences and worldviews that enhance the academic mission of the University of Florida. • An effective faculty diversity program supports the equality of opportunity which ensures that the University of Florida can fully utilize the intellectual resources embedded in our diversity and maintain our legitimacy as a public university receiving federal funds. BUSINESS CASE FACULTY DIVERSITY • A diverse faculty reduces the probability of ‘groupthinking’ where pressure to conform within a group can prevent good decision making as independent thinking is lost. • A diverse faculty creates a greater engagement of a full range of differences in producing the synergies that leads to breakthroughs in productivity and innovations. • A diverse faculty provides a broader pool of skills, talents and perspectives to draw from for problemsolving and organizational success. UF’s Diversity Action Plan Proposed Actions Administrators are accountable for creating and maintaining a climate of inclusion within their college and academic units. – Each policy, procedure, program or practice implemented should reflect the principles and objectives of UF Regulation 1.0006, UF Nondiscrimination policy. • Promote developing faculty exchange program with Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs). • Promote establishing contacts with counterparts at HBCUs and HSIs for potential faculty recruitment. UF’s Diversity Action Plan Proposed Actions • Incorporate experience working in a diverse environment or with diverse population part of the job announcement. • Incorporate diversity experience related questions in the interview questions. Reading suggestions... “When we feel a sense of belonging it is not because we are the same as everyone else, but because we have been accepted as we are.” THANK YOU!