John P. J. Dussich, Ph. D. Tokiwa International Victimology Institute “Victimology & Victim Assistance” LPSK Bogor, Indonesia March 27, 2013 The first victim assistance programs in the USA were established in 1972 in the private NGO sector. By 1998 there were about 20,000 private & public programs that provided support and assistance to crime victims Today there are about 30,000 private & public programs which have become a part of the US’s criminal and juvenile justice infrastructure. Victim assistance agencies in the American private, nonprofit sector have also grown since the early 1970s. Today there are about: 2,500 programs for battered women 2,600 rape crisis centers nationwide 230 chapters of Parents of Murdered Children 520 chapters of Mothers against Drunk Driving 360 jurisdictions that have multidisciplinary children’s advocacy centers 530 communities that have Triad programs that assist elder victims “The US movement” started just over 3 decades ago with the support of national NGOs. Founded in 1976 in Fresno World’s oldest broad-based victim services and rights group Membership organization guided by 4 purposes: (1) service to its members, (2) system advocacy for victims, (3) training and education resource, (4) direct service to victims Founded in 1977 Represents state compensation programs Provides advocacy, training, and technical assistance, and fosters communication among state programs Represents all matters affecting state compensation programs Founded in 1978 by Charlotte and Bob Hullinger after the murder of their daughter, Lisa Goal is to allow the grief of family members to be shared with others with similar experiences Founded in 1979 by the late Frank Carrington, national victims’ rights activist Dedicated to promoting victims’ rights in the civil and criminal justice systems Administers the National Victim Assistance Academy (NVAA) Founded in 1980 by Cindy Lightner after her daughter, Cari, was killed by a repeat drunk driving offender in Fair Oaks, CA MADD’s mission is to stop drunk driving and support victims of this crime Established in 1984 with the passage by Congress of the Missing Children’s Assistance Act John and Reve Walsh (son Adam) NCMEC serves as a clearinghouse and national resource center for helping exploited children Established in 1984 through the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) OVC administers the Crime Victims Fund – derived from fines/penalties paid by offenders (not tax dollars) Fund state victim assistance and compensation programs, support services, training, education, and technical assistance to CJS professionals, victim assistance programs in Indian country, and initiate projects with national impact. $1.6 billion to support domestic violence and sexual assault programs and research At the local level, communities are increasingly supporting victim service programs through voter tax millages, budget line items, local levies (taxes), and even community budgeted victim assistance centers (ex: Jacksonville, FL) Sponsorship by, and affiliation with, a host agency has a strong influence on the services a program provides to victims regardless of their needs: Police based – want cooperation with the investigations and enhanced public relations. Prosecutor based – want cooperation during the trial as witnesses. The advantage to police-based programs is their connection with police, who have mobility and 24 hour availability The advantage to prosecutor-based programs is their speedy access to case information, court dates, and court escort services. Nonprofit criminal justice or social service agencies provide access to all victims, including those who do not trust the criminal justice system. They often provide hotline, emergency financial aid and social services with extensive use of volunteers. Police-based: Victim Assistance Unit and Family Crisis Intervention Team of Rochester, NY Urban Prosecutor-based: Victim/Witness Services of Milwaukee County, WI Rural Prosecutor-based: Victim/Witness Division of Greene County Prosecutor’s Office, Xenia, OH Nonprofit: Crime Victim Centers of Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN Began in 1975 with an LEAA grant Services are located in the police department’s Central Investigation Division (CID) Provides assistance in filing for compensation, victim outreach, case status, court process, restitution, property, transportation, home/hospital visits, accompaniment to court, agency referrals, counseling, and education programs FACIT – Provides “crisis intervention, short-term counseling, follow-up support services for child victims, domestic trouble, and juvenile delinquency” Liaison with Child Protective Services Utilizes community human service agencies and law enforcement personnel FACIT counseling specialists Staffed from 8am to 10pm with 1 program coordinator and 8 counseling specialists FACIT is involved in cases of child abuse in neglect in two ways: A child abuse specialist being requested a the scene of the crime, to meet the victim at the hospital, or to assist at the police interview Paperwork is forwarded to the CARE Unit where it is logged in and assigned a child abuse specialist Most child abuse and neglect cases remain open and active for 2-3 months, and are closed with no prosecution. Victim/Witness Services Unit is located in the District Attorney’s Office Victim/Witness Services – Children’s Court Center Court Watch Sexual Assault Counseling Unit Witness Protection Unit Created in 1982 Provides services to all victims of crime from the time the crime is reported through the entire investigation and prosecution process. › › › Began in 1977 Is operated by the Minnesota Citizens Council on Crime and Justice, a nonprofit organization formed in 1959 to provide a vehicle for citizen involvement in the criminal justice system The CVC provides a place where victims of violent and property crime may call or come for help beyond what the police provide - elderly & handicapped services, information and referral resources, and court-related services. Supported by these national NGO professionals there are 3 primary hosts for all victims with assistance programs are : law enforcement departments, prosecutor’s offices, and not-for-profit criminal justice/ social service agencies.