Arabic Language Proficiency Test (ALPT)

Report
‫إختباركفائة اللغة العربية‬
‫)‪(IKLA‬‬
‫‪Abdul Munip‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
Klasifikasi Tes Bahasa
Tes hasil belajar
Tujuan
Tes
kemampuan
Standar
Tes
kesiapan
Pembuat
Tes
bahasa
Buatan
Sendiri
Listening
Materi
Deskret
Speaking
Integratif
Objektif
Reading
Skoring
Subjektif
Writing
2
Jenis tes bahasa dilihat dari tujuan
Achievement test
Proficiency test
(al-ikhtibâr altahshîlî)
(ikhtibâr al-ijâdah aw
al-kafâah)
Language aptitude
test
(ikhtibâr al-isti‘dâd
al-lughawî)
3
Achievement test (al-ikhtibâr al-tahshîlî) =
Tes Hasil Belajar Bahasa
• Tes hasil belajar bahasa adalah tes yang
dimaksudkan menguji apa yang telah diperoleh
peserta didik setelah menempuh atau
memperoleh pengalaman pendidik-an dalam
waktu tertentu.
• Tes ini terkait dengan kurikulum dan buku ajar
yang digunakan oleh lembaga pendidikan, dan
pada umumnya dilaksanakan dalam bentuk ujian
pada pertengahan atau akhir semester.
4
Proficiency test (ikhtibâr al-ijâdah
aw al-kafâah)
• Tes profisiensi adalah tes yang tidak
dimaksudkan untuk menguji kebahasaan
kebahasaan peserta didik, dan tidak terkait
dengan kurikulum, buku ajar dan masa program
belajar tertentu, melainkan menguji kemampuan
dan keterampilan bahasa peserta didik secara
umum.
• Yang termasuk jenis tes ini adalah TOEFL (Test of
English as a Foreign Language) atau TOAFL (Test
of Arabic as a Foreign Language).
5
Language aptitude test (ikhtibâr alisti‘dâd al-lughawî)
• Tes kesiapan atau prediksi adalah tes yang
dimaksudkan untuk menentukan tingkat
kesiapan peserta didik untuk belajar
bahasa kedua, dan memprediksi kemajuan
yang akan dicapai peserta didik.
• Bisa berfungsi sebagai placement test
• Tes ini juga mengukur aspek audio-visual
peserta didik, terutama mengukur
kemampuannya dalam membedakan
berbagai tarâkîb lugawiyyah.
6
Bagaimana dengan IKLA?
• IKLA merupakan sejenis tes proficiency yang bersifat
tertulis dengan tujuan mengukur kemampuan peserta
tes (tester) dalam menguasai kemahiran berbahasa Arab
Arab sebagai alat komunikasi secara aktif.
• Diharapkan tes IKLA bisa berfungsi sebagai:
1.
2.
Tes standard untuk mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dalam
menguasai kemampuan berbahasa Arab modern yang diakui
secara nasional maupun internasiona
Tes standar yang mampu memprediksi kemampuan siswa
dalam menguasai keterampilan berbahasa Arab untuk
mengikuti perkulaiahan di berbagai perguruan tinggi yang
menggunakan bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa pengantarnya.
7
IKLA mengacu kemana?
• Jika IKLA diproyeksikan sebagai tes standar yang diakui secara
internasional, maka harus mengacu kepada standar penguasaan
bahasa yang telah dirumuskan oleh lembaga internasional.
• Setidaknya ada dua lembaga internasional yang menjadi rujukan
penyusunan tes-tes profesinsi berbagai bahasa di dunia, yaitu:
1.
2.
ACTFL = American Concil on the Teaching Foreign Language, yakni
sebuah lembaga yang sering menjadi rujukan dalam pengembangan
tes bahasa asing yang berbasis di Amerika. Arabacademy, sebuah
lembaga bahasa Arab yang berbasis di Mesir juga mengembangkan tes
profesiensi bahasa Arab (Arabic Language Proficiency Test) dengan
merujuk pada ACTFL ini.
TELC - The European Language Certificates, yang berbasis di Eropa.
Yang telah mengembangkan Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages (CEFR). Standar ini telah diadopsi oleh ALARABIYYA-TEST (http://www.test-arabic.com/en), sebuah tes
profisiensi bahasa Arab yang berbasis di Jerman.
8
Standar ACTLF
• ACTLF telah menerbitkan panduan pengembangan tes
profesiensi bahasa asing pada tahun 2012 ini.
• Panduan tersebut berisi standar kemahiran berbahasa asing
yang terdiri dari listening, speaking, reading dan writing.
• Masing-masing kemahiran tersebut diklasifikasikan menjadi 6
tingkat kemahiran, yaitu:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Distinguished,
Superior,
Advanced,
Intermediate, and
Novice.
• Khusus untuk tingkatan advances, intermediate, dan novice
terbagi lagi menjadi tingkatan high, mid, dan low
• Panduan selengkapnya dapat dibaca di sini
9
Standar TELC
• Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (CEFR) mengelompokkan kemampuan
berbahasa (listening, speaking, reading, dan writing) ke
dalam empat tingkatan, yaitu A1, A2, B1, dan B2.
1. A1
• Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and
very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a
concrete type.
• Can introduce him / herself and others and can ask and
answer questions about personal details such as where
he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has.
• Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks
slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
10
2.
A2
• Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of
most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information,
shopping, local geography, employment).
• Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct
exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
• Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate
environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
3.
B1
• Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters
regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
• Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the
language is spoken.
• Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal
interest.
• Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give
reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
11
4. B2
• Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both
concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in
his/her field of specialization.
• Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that
makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible
without strain for either party.
• Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects
and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the
advantages and disadvantages of various options.
12
Tes Profisiensi Bahasa Arab Standar
yang ada?
Arabic Langauge
Proficincy Test
(ALPT)
TOAFL (UIN
Jakarta)
Al-Arabiyya Tes
13
ALPT (www.arabacademy.com)
• Arab Academy’s Arabic Language Proficiency Test (ALPT) is the global
standard for measuring student proficiency levels in Arabic. It is used to
indicate proficiency in the five language skills: Listening
Comprehension, Reading, Structure, Writing, and Speaking.
Development of the ALPT began in 2002, and since then leading experts
in the field of Arabic Language Training have cooperated with Arab
Academy to produce a valid and reliable test.
• The advantages of having such a worldwide standard to measure Arabic
language proficiency include:
• Accurate student placement into appropriate Arabic langauge course levels
• Assessing the effectiveness of Arabic language courses and programs
through pre and post-program testing
• Evaluating test-takers and their likelihood of success prior to admission to
Arabic language programs or Arab universities
• Facilitates admission to academic programs that need a minimum level of
Arabic fluency
• Provides proof of Arabic language fluency for employees who need to
present such certificates to current or prospective employers
14
• Konon telah ada kerjasama antara Kemenag dengan
Arabacademy ini:
• The Arabic Language Proficiency Test (ALPT) is endorsed by the
Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI). There are 56
member countries under ICCI that include all 22 Arab countries as
well as 34 countries in Africa and the Far East.
• The Ministry of Religious Affairs in Indonesia (MORA) has signed a
cooperation agreement with the Arab Academy that relates to the
utilization of ALPT at universities, institutes and schools that fall
under it.
• Dalam wikipedia diungkapkan bahwa ALPT telah digunakan di
berbagai negara
• ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, Arabic Academy, Cairo,
Egypt
• ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, TigerLilly Arabic Institute,
Grand Rapids, USA
• ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, Madinah Arabic Language
Tuition Center
15
Al-Arabiyya Test
• The AL-ARABIYYA-TEST is the first recognized computer-based
standard test for Arabic at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2.
• You would like to study or work in an Arab country?
• You would like to apply for a job requiring proficiency in the
Arabic language at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2?
• You would like to complete an internship requiring knowledge of
Arabic?
• You need a recognized certificate of your proficiency in the Arabic
language?
• You obtain from us an internationally recognized certificate of
your proficiency in the Arabic language.
16
• The Arabic Test is based upon the level
descriptions of the Common European
Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)
and is offered at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2.
• The AL-ARABIYYA-TEST is the standard test for
Arabic to prove proficiency in a universally valid
and comprehensible way.
• Passing the AL-ARABIYYA-TEST successfully
increases the prospects of your application with
national and international institutions.
17
• The AL-ARABIYYA TEST consists of 4 components:
•
•
•
•
LISTENING
READING
WRITING
SPEAKING
• Each one of these components forms an independent unit and
must be completely finished before you can continue the test
or change to the next test field respectively.
• You find further information about the structure of the ALARABIYYA TEST, the levels and the types of tasks under TESTPreparation
18
Arabic Test area LISTENING
• A1 - Can understand familiar expressions and very basic phrases which refer to
himself / herself, the family or concrete things, provided the other person talks slowly
and clearly.
• A2 - Can understand single sentences and frequently used expressions related to
areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information,
shopping, employment, local geography). Understands the essential of short, clear
and simple messages and announcements.
• B1 - Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters
regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can follow many radio or
television broadcasts about topical events and can understand the main information
about subjects from the professional field or field of interest if the other person talks
relatively slowly and clearly.
• B2 – Can understand longer contributions and lectures and can also follow complex
argumentation if the subject is somewhat familiar. Can understand most news
telecasts and on-the-spot reports about topics of the moment in television and
Internet. Can understand most feature films if standard language is spoken.
19
Arabic Test field READING
• A1 – Can understand single familiar names, words and very basic
phrases, e. g. on signs, placards or in catalogues.
• A2 – Can read quite short, simple texts. Can find concrete,
foreseeable information in simple everyday texts (e. g.
advertisements, brochures, menu cards or timetables) and can
understand short, simple personal letters.
• B1 – Can understand texts in which, above all, very current everyday
or professional language occurs. Can understand personal letters, in
which events, feelings and wishes are outlined.
• B2 – Can read and understand articles and reports about problems
of the present time, in which the writers hold a certain attitude or a
certain viewpoint. Can understand contemporary literary prose texts
20
Arabic Test field WRITING
• A1 – Can write a short, simple postcard, e. g. holiday greetings. Can
enter name, address, nationaliy etc. in forms, e. g. in hotels.
• A2 – Can write short, simple notes and messages. I can write a quite
simple personal letter, e. g. in order to express my thanks for
something.
• B1 – Can write simple connected texts on topics which are familiar
to me or of personal interest. Can write personal letters and report
in them about experiences.
• B2 - Can produce clear, detailed text on a great number of subjects
which are of interest.
Can convey information in an essay or report or express arguments
and counterarguments for or against a certain opinion. Can write
letters with a personal judgement of events and experiences
21
Arabic Test field SPEAKING
• A1
Coherent speaking – Can use simple expressions and sentences, in order to describe
people whom he / she knows and in order to describe where he / she lives.
Dialogue – Can communicate in a simple way if the person in conversation with him /
her is prepared to repeat something more slowly or to say it in another way, and
helps him / her to formulate what he / she tries to say. Can ask and answer simple
questions, provided that it concerns immediately necessary things and very familiar
subjects.
• A2
Coherent speaking – Can describe e. g. the family, other people, the living situation,
the training and the present or last job by a number of sentences and by simple
means.
Dialogue – Can make himself / herself understood in simple, routine situations, in
which the matter at issue is a simple, direct exchange of information and familiar
subjects and activities. Can hold a very short conversation in order to establish
contact with someone, but normally does not understand enough to keep the
conversation going himself / herself.
22
• B1
Coherent speaking – Can speak in simple, coherent sentences in order to describe
experiences and events or dreams, hopes and aims. Can briefly explain and give
reasons for his opinions and plans. Can tell a story or give an account of the plot of a
book or film and describe reactions.
• Dialogue – Can cope with most of the situations one comes across when travelling in
the speech area. Can participate without preparation in conversations about subjects
which are familiar, which are of personal interest or which relate to subjects of
everyday life like family, hobbies, work, journeys, topical events.
• B2
Coherent speaking – Can give a clear and detailed description about many subjects
from his / her own fields of interest. Can explain a viewpoint about a current issue
and give advantages and disadvantages of various options.
Dialogue – Can communicate so spontaneously and fluently that a normal
conversation with a native speaker is quite possible. Can participate actively in a
discussion in familiar situations and justify and defend his / her own opinions.
23
TASKS and TYPES OF TASKS
• The AL-ARABIYYA TEST contains, among others, the following
types of tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Multiple choice:
1 listening text + 1 question + 4 answer defaults = 1 answer is
correct
Multiple choice:
3 listening texts + 3 answer defaults = 1 answer is correct per
answer default
Assignment
3 listening texts + 4 answers (pictures) = to assign 3 answers
(pictures) correctly (1 answer (picture) remains)
Right / Wrong
1 listening text + 5 answer defaults = to tick off 5 answers (right
– wrong – no information in the text)
24
TOAFL
• TOAFL adalah singkatan dari “Test of Arabic as Foreign
Language”. Nama ini diilhami oleh TOEFL (Test of English as a
Foreign Language), yang telah ada lebih dahulu. Penamaan ini
memang dimaksudkan agar TOAFL lebih mudah diucapkan dan
dikenal oleh banyak orang, meskipun terkesan “menyerupai”
TOEFL.
• Pusat Bahasa (PB) UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta sebetulnya
telah membuat nama untuk tes ini, yaitu “al-Ikhtibârât al‘Arabiyyah li al-Dirâsât al-Islâmiyyah li al-Ajânib” atau “alIkhtibârât fi al-Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah li al-Nâthiqîna bi Ghairihâ”.
Akan tetapi, TOAFL sudah terlanjur lebih dikenal dan populer.
Selain itu, TOAFL sudah menjadi “trademark” atau
“brainmark” PB UIN Jakarta
25
• Penggunaan TOAFL sebagai materi tes didasarkan pada
kebutuhan akademis bahwa para peserta program S2 dan S3
dituntut mampu dan memiliki standar tertentu dalam
berbahasa asing, utamanya Arab. Selanjutnya, pada
2000/2001, TOAFL juga digunakan sebagai materi tes masuk di
beberapa Program Pascasarjana di luar UIN Jakarta, seperti:
IAIN Palembang, IAIN Lampung, IAIN Mataram, STAIN
Banjarmasin, dan IAIN Padang, bahkan juga PPs. Studi Islam,
Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta.
• Saat ini, PB telah memiliki 8 edisi/form TOAFL; dua di
antaranya telah dijadikan sebagai bahan pelatihan TOAFL dan
yang empat masih “dijaga kerahasiaannya” untuk digunakan
sebagai bahan tes.
• Jumlah butir soal 150 dengan waktu yang disediakan 120
menit.
26
Ruang Lingkup TOAFL
Fahm alMasmû’
Fahm al-Tarâkîb
wa al-‘Ibârât
Fahm alMufradât wa alNash al-Maktûb
al-Qawâ‘id
27
Fahm al-Masmu’
• Sejumlah 50 item, meliputi:
1. Pemahaman makna, pengertian, penalaran logis
atau kesimpulan dari sebuah pernyataan/kalimat
yang diperdengarkan (20 item);
2. Pemahaman maksud, topik, penalaran logis,
kesimpulan dan makna tersirat dari dialog singkat
antara dua orang (15 item);
3. Pemahaman maksud, topik, penalaran logis,
kesimpulan dan makna tersirat dari dialog panjang
antara dua orang atau lebih dan alenia pernyataan
(15 item).
28
Fahm al-Tarâkîb wa al-‘Ibârât
• Terdiri dari 40 item, meliputi:
1. Melengkapi kalimat dengan
ungkapan atau struktur baku (20
item), dan
2. Mengenali dan menganalisis
penggunaan kata, ungkapan dan
atau struktur yang salah dalam
sebuah kalimat (20 item).
29
Fahm al-Mufradât wa al-Nash alMaktûb
• terdiri dari 40 item, meliputi:
1. Memahami tarâduf (sinonim) atau
kedekatan makna suatu yang
digarisbawahi sesuai dengan konteks
kalimat (20 item);
2. Memahami isi, topik dan makna tersirat
dalam beberapa paragraf/wacana ((20
item);
30
Al-Qawa’id
• Terdiri dari 20 butir soal yang mencakup:
• Nahwu
• Memahami penggunaan, kedudukan (i’râb)
dalam kalimat atau jumlah (10 item)
• Sharaf
• Memahami derivasi (isytiqâq), dan bentuk
kata (10 item)
31
Apa yang harus dilakukan PBBA
UIN Suka?
Orientasi
Penyusunan
ruang lingkup
materi tes
Penyusunan
Blueprint Tes
Pengembanga
n spesifikasi
butir tes
(Mother Test)
Kembangkan
Kloning Tes
Evaluasi
kualitas Tes
32
Orientasi
• Apa tujuan dari tes IKLA di UIN Sunan Kalijaga?
• Model tes apa yang akan dijadikan referensi?
• Cakupan kemahiran berbahasa Arab apa saja yang akan
diteskan?
• Berapa butir tes yang akan dikembangkan?
• Berapa waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengerjakan tes
• Bagaimana bentuk soalnya?
• Bagaimana sistem skoringnya?
• Bagaimana pengembangan butir tesnya?
• Bagaimana model pelatihan bagi calon peserta tes?
• Apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk memperoleh pengakuan
eksternal terhadap tes tersebut?
33
Penyusunan ruang lingkup materi
tes
1.
Kemahiran berbahasa Arab
• Istima’
• Tingkat kemampuan istima’ apa saja yang akan diteskan?
• Kalam?
• Jika kalam juga diteskan, kemampuan apa saja yang mau diuji?
• Qira’ah
• Kitabah?
2.
Unsur bahasa Arab
• Mufradat
• Kelompok mufradat di bidang apa saja yang mau diteskan,
• Aspek-aspek pemahaman mufradat apa saja yang mau diteskan? (muradif,
ad-dlid, musytarak, dan lain-lain)
• Qawa’id (struktur)
• Butir-butir sharfiyah apa saja yang mau diteskan?
• Butir-butir nahwiyah apa saja yang mau diteskan?
34
Penyusunan Blueprint Tes
• Berapa butir tes yang akan disusun?
• Berapa waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk
mengerjakan?
• Bentuk tes apa saja yang akan dibuat?
• Berapa proporsi (persentase) untuk masingmasing komponen materi tes?
• Semua itu dituangkan dalam bentuk kisi-kisi
instrumen atau yang sejenisnya.
35
Pengembangan spesifikasi butir (tes
induk)
• Spesifikasi butir tes adalah deskripsi tentang kekhususan
setiap butir tes yang mencakup:
• Tujuan
• Ruang lingkup cakupan materi
• Indikator
• Contoh butir soal
• Kunci jawaban
• Spesifikasi butir tes bisa dianggap sebagai pedoman
utama bagi siapapun yang mau mengembangkan butir
tes.
• Contoh spesifikasi butir tes dapat dilihat di sini dan di sini
36

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