Culinary Nutrition ch06

Report
Nutrition for Foodservice and
Culinary Professionals
Chapter 6
Vitamins
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
State four general characteristics of vitamins, and explain
how water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins are different.
 Identify which vitamin is deficient in the American diet
and two vitamins that are toxic when taken in excess.
 Identify functions and food sources of each vitamin
presented.
 List benefits of eating fruits and vegetables.
 Discuss the use of fruits and vegetables on the menu, and
describe ways to conserve vitamins when handling and
cooking fruits and vegetables.
 Define phytochemicals and give examples of foods in
which they are found.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Basics of Vitamins

Vitamins = organic substances that carry out
processes in the body that are vital to health
◦ Very small amounts are needed—and only
small amounts are in foods.
◦ Most vitamins are obtained by eating foods—
some are made by intestinal bacteria and one
is made in the skin in sunlight.
◦ There is no perfect food with all the vitamins
you need in just the right amounts.
◦ Vitamins do contain kcalories.
◦ Some vitamins in foods are precursors.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Two Categories of Vitamins

Fat-soluble
◦ Occur in foods
containing fats
◦ Stored in the body
◦ Include vitamins A, D, E,
and K
◦ Excessive intake of A or
D may lead to
undesirable symptoms
such as weak bones

Water-soluble
◦ Includes vitamin C and
B-complex vitamins
◦ B vitamins work in every
cell where they function
as part of coenzymes
◦ A coenzyme combines
with an enzyme to allow
the enzyme to do its job
◦ Must take daily because
excess is excreted
(except B6 and B12)
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Water-Soluble Vitamins
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Vitamin C
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic acid
Biotin
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamins: Too little and too much
What is the vitamin most likely to be deficient
in United States? Vitamin D
 In addition, some elderly are deficient in vitamin
B12 and women capable of becoming pregnant
are often deficient in folate.
 What vitamins are most likely to be toxic in
excess? Vitamin D, also vitamins C and B6

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin A

Functions:
Food Sources:
◦ Fat-soluble vitamin;
◦ Milk and eggs
maintains the health of
◦ Many red, orange, or
the eye and vision
yellow fruits and
(prevents night
vegetables contain
blindness)
carotenoids—pigments
◦ Promote healthy skin
—some of which can be
and surface linings of
converted to vitamin A
the lungs, GI tract, etc.
(such as beta carotene,
which is also an
◦ Supports reproduction,
antioxidant)
growth, and
development
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sources of Vitamin A
Many red, orange, or yellow fruits and vegetables contain carotenoids
and are therefore sources of vitamin A. Some green vegetables, such as
spinach and romaine, also contain vitamin A.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin D

Functions:
◦ Maintains normal blood
levels of calcium and
phosphorus by
enhancing their
absorption into the body.
◦ Normal blood levels of
calcium and phosphorus
are needed to make and
maintain strong bones.
When ultraviolet rays shine on
your skin, you make a precursor
of vitamin D.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin D




Very few foods contain
vitamin D except for
fatty fish.
All milk is fortified
with vitamin D.
Most cereals are
fortified.
Several months of D
can be stored in the
body, so it is helpful
during winter months
when sun is not as
strong.
All milk in the United States is
fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D is
also often added to breakfast cereals,
butter, and margarine. Some orange
juice is also vitamin D-fortified.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin D (cont’d)





A majority of adults and many children in the
United States do not meet the RDA.
As you get older, the amount of vitamin D your
body makes from sun exposure decreases by more
than 50 percent.
Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause rickets;
in adults can cause osteomalacia.
Vitamin D deficiency can contribute to osteoporosis
(fragile bones likely to break)—typically seen in
older women.
Vitamin D is toxic when taken in excess of the
RDA.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin E

Functions:
◦ Antioxidants
◦ Protects against free
radicals, which can
damage cells
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin C

Functions:
 Vitamin C content of food
is reduced by prolonged
◦ Important to form
storage and cooking—
collagen—a protein
because it is water-soluble
substance that provides
and can be destroyed by
strength to bones, teeth,
heat.
skin, etc. and helps heal
wounds. Collagen is like  Certain people need more
cement, holding cells
vitamin C: smokers,
and tissues together.
pregnant and breastfeeding
women, children, and
◦ Makes some hormones.
anyone with fever or
◦ Strengthens resistance to
infection.
infection.
◦ Antioxidant.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin C Food Sources
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Thiamin, Riboflavin, and Niacin

Functions:
◦ All are part of
coenzymes needed
to get energy from
carbohydrate, fats,
and protein.
◦ Needed for normal
growth.
Food Sources:
Thiamin: pork, beans,
watermelon, acorn
squash
Riboflavin: milk and
milk products, eggs
Niacin: meat, poultry
fish, peanut butter,
milk, and eggs
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Thiamin, Riboflavin, and Niacin
(cont’d)
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin B6

Functions:
◦ Part of a coenzyme
involved in carbohydrate,
fat, and protein metabolism
—especially crucial to
protein metabolism.
◦ Makes hemoglobin in red
blood cells—carries
oxygen to cells.
◦ Helps immune system.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Folate

Functions:
◦ Folate is part of
coenzymes required to
make DNA so it is
needed to make all
new cells.


Pregnant women are at
risk of folate deficiency,
which may cause neural
tube defects (malformed
brain or spine) during first
few months of pregnancy.
All women capable of
becoming pregnant should
take 400 mcg of synthetic
folic acid daily from
fortified foods (breads) or
supplements in addition to
natural folate in foods.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Folate
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin B12

Functions:
◦ Part of a coenzyme
needed to make new
cells and DNA.
◦ Activates the folate
coenzyme.
◦ Ensures normal
functioning of the
nervous system.



Found only in animal
foods so could be
problem for vegans.
Vitamin B12 is harder to
absorb for elderly, who
may need foods fortified
with B12 or supplements
that use crystalline
vitamin B12 (easier to
absorb).
B12 deficiency affects
nervous system.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin B12
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Culinary Focus: Fruits and Veggies

Three reasons to eat more fruits and vegetables:
◦ Most fruits and vegetables are major
contributors of a number of nutrients that are
underconsumed—vitamins A and C, folate,
dietary fiber, etc.
◦ Consuming them is associated with less risk of
many chronic diseases such as heart disease.
◦ Most fruits and vegetables, when prepared
without added fats or sugars, are relatively low
in kcalories.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tips
To get a healthy variety of fruits and vegetables,
think color.
 Store fruits and vegetables properly and use at
optimum time for freshness, color, flavor, and
nutrition.
 Keep most fruits and veggies cold and moist.
 Consider cooking methods such as blanching,
stewing, steaming, grilling, sautéing, baking,
boiling, and braising.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tips (cont’d)
When cooking, consider texture and flavor
change. Keep cover off the pot of vegetables
such as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts.
 Do not overcook!

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
To Prevent Nutrient Loss in
Fruits and Vegetables
Buy fresh, high-quality produce, and check
closely when receiving.
 Store properly (close up the wrapping tightly to
decrease exposure to the air, which pulls out
water) and use product when it is still fresh.
 When cooking: Avoid peeling, prepare small
amounts at a time, cook quickly using
appropriate methods such as steaming, cook just
until tender.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Menuing and Presentation
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Menuing and Presentation (cont’d)
Fruits are a natural in salads, such as pineapple
and raisins with carrots.
 Roasted fruits with shallots are a wonderful base
on which to place proteins. Place chicken on a
bed of roasted peaches and mango with jicama
or sautéed bok choy.
 Fruits are a natural for dessert—fresh, roasted,
or baked into a cobbler with a oatmeal almond
crust.
 Berries are great when you want vibrant colors
in sauces, purées, toppings, and garnishes.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Menuing and Presentation (cont’d)
Vegetables allow you to serve what looks like a
big portion with reduced kcalories and no fat or
cholesterol.
 When using vegetables, be mindful of the
season for maximum flavor, visual appeal, and
value. Also think variety.
 Olives add exquisite flavor—there are many
great varieties, such as Manzanilla or Gaeta.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hot Topic: Functional Foods and
Phytochemicals

Functional foods are
foods that contain an
ingredient that
provides health
benefits beyond the
nutrients in the food.
For example, bottled
drinks are enhanced
with herbs and taurine.

Many of the healthpromoting ingredients
in functional foods are
phytochemicals—
bioactive compounds
found in plants that are
linked to decreased
risk of chronic
diseases. For example,
cocoa is a rich source
of antioxidants that
may help protect your
blood vessels and
heart.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional Foods

Like dietary supplements, functional foods will
not compensate for a poor diet. Whole foods still
contain the right amount and balance of
nutrients and phytochemicals to promote health.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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