CIMMYT - ilri

Report
CIMMYT’s 44-years of Collaborative
Research for Development in
Ethiopia
Bekele Abeyo
CIMMYT Country Representative
CGIAR-EARS Partnership Dialogue Meeting
December 3-4, 2014
Addis Ababa
CIMMYT is a Spanish
acronym for International Maize
and Wheat Improvement
Center
- Established in 1966
- Offices in 14 countries
- More
than
700
research and support
staff from 50 countries
CIMMYT’s Mission
• To sustainably increase the
productivity of Maize and Wheat
systems to ensure global food
security and reduce poverty
CIMMYT in Ethiopia
- CIMMYT-Ethiopia relationship started in 1968
- MoU signed and office opened with two staff
members in 1987
- Area of collaboration
- Germplasm supply
- Capacity building
- Crop and natural resource management
- Socio-economic research
Why Maize and Wheat Matter?
• About 14 million Ethiopian HHs (> 70 million people) in
rural areas grow maize and wheat, for food and income.
• Maize and wheat occupy almost 4 million hectares
60
Wheat
Maize
Both crops
Percentage
50
40
50
51
49
30
20
10
0
Food supply
(kg/capita/yr)
Calories
(kcal/capita/day)
Protein
(g/capita/day)
Percent contribution
of maize and wheat in
cereals (FAOSTAT,
2011)
Relative importance of maize and wheat in Ethiopia
(Area, Production, and Productivity)
25
Grain area (2013/14)
Maize
7%
Wheat
21.58
Cereals
20
14%
15
10
13.4
9.85
8.8
79%
Cereals
Pulses
6.49
4.7
5
Oil Crops
3.93
1.99 1.61
3.25
2.45
0
20%
Number of holders
(in millions)
16%
63%
Maize
Wheat
Other Cereals
Area
(Million ha)
Production
(Million tons)
Yield
(t/ha)
Source: CSA, 2013/14
Highlights of Activities
CIMMYT Staff in Ethiopia
Current total staff: 34
• 12 Internationally Recruited Staff
• 16 National Research Staff
•
6 National Support Staff
40
35
National Research Staff
30
25
National Support Staff
20
International Staff
15
10
5
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
0
CIMMYT Current Projects (15)
Maize
-
NuME- Nutritious Maize for Ethiopia - CIDA/DFATD
SIMLESA- Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Systems - ACIAR
DTMaSS – Drought Tolerant Maize Seed Scaling - USAID
DTMA- Drought Tolerant Maize For Africa – BMGF
TAMA - Taking Maize Agronomy to the Scale - BMGF
-
AP - Adoption Pathways - ACIAR
Wheat
- DRRW- Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat - BMGF
- WSSP- Wheat Seed and Surveillance Project - USAID
Cross cutting
- CASFESA- Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers in Africa IFAD
- CCAFS- Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
- FACASI- Farm Power and Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable -
Intensification ACIAR
M&WFP – DNA Finger Printing Maize and Wheat Varieties - BMGF
AR - Africa Rising
GYGA - Global Yield Gap Atlas
T4F- Trees for Food - ACIAR
Active projects on major challenges in the maize &
wheat systems to sustainably increase productivity
Climate Change
Wheat Rusts
• CCAFS
• DTMA
• DTMaSS
• DRRW
• WSSP
Food &
Nutritional
Security
Farm Machineries &
Management
FACASI
CASFESA
TAMA
Quality &
Sustainability
•
•
•
•
•
•
NuME
SIMLESA
T4F
AR
GYGA
AP
Partnership Modality
• Comparative advantage
CIMMYT
• Complementarity
• Commitment
EARES
End users
CIMMYT - Ethiopia’s National Partners
• MoA and RBoA
• EIAR and its’ research centers
• Regional ARIs and their research centers
• Other CG Centers
• ATA
• Public and private seed producers
• Universities and NGOs, SG2000
• Cooperative Unions
• Public and private mechanization importers, dealers and
manufacturers
• Farm Radio International (FRI)
• ATVET Centers
• EPHI, MoH and Regional BoH
CIMMYT’s key areas of focus
• Germplasm supply and variety release
• Physical capacity building
• Human capacity building
• Project development and financial support
• Conferencing and networking
• Technical support and backstopping
• Empowering NARS to access other services
CIMMYT empower NARS to access other
services (Global & Regional)
• Entry point to some services:
• MARS for targeting key traits
• DH facility (Kiboko, Kenya)
• Tryptophan and lysine content analysis
(CIMMYT-Mexico)
• MLN screening facility (Naivasha, KE)
• Eastern Africa rust screening site (Njoro, KE)
Example: Robust Molecular Tool Pipeline for
Accelerating Maize Breeding
Marker
Discovery
 Waterlogging
 Heat
 BLSB
 PUE
 Tar spot
 Striga
Marker
Validation
 Drought
 NUE
 MLN
 CSC
 GLS
 TLB
Marker
Deployment
 Provitamin A
 MSV
 qHIR1
Maize
DH
Maize DH Facility for
Africa
at Facility
Kiboko, for
Kenya
Africa at Kiboko, Kenya
MLN Screening Facility at KALRO-Naivasha, KE
Achievements
Germplasm Supply
• Since 1968, annually, about 6,000 – 7,000 maize
and wheat germplasm are introduced and tested
jointly with NARS under local environments
• As a result, 31 maize and 88 wheat varieties
were released with CIMMYT Origin (next slide)
• Productivity of both maize and wheat have
doubled in the last 10 years
Variety Releases
 Number of maize and wheat varieties developed and
disseminated with CIMMYT origin
70
140
60
52%
MAIZE
WHEAT
120
50
70%
100
40
88
80
31
29
30
60
17
20
10
125
60
0
3 2
20
2
35
24 23
16
7
14
10
26
13
0
0
Total Maize varieties released
45
40
10
7
3
18
Varieties with CIMMYT origin
• 30 of 42 (i.e. 71%) maize varieties
released under the NARS have
CIMMYT origin.
Total Wheat varieties released
Varieties with CIMMYT Origin
Physical Capacity Building
• Field machineries: plot planter, plot combiner, threshers,
tractors
• Houses: lath, green, ware and head houses, stores
• Vehicles: station wagons & pickups (>18 for last 5 years),
and motor cycles (36)
• Cold rooms: deep freezers, humidifiers
• Irrigation Systems: ponds, sprinklers (2 seasons/year)
• Office Computers: desktops, laptops, moisture tester, bags,
envelopes etc.
• Lab equipment & chemicals: NIR, balances, seed counters,
moisture testers
Examples of equipment, cold room, vehicles, and
modern store donated or constructed
Transforming Kulumsa WCoE from manual
planting to plot drill
Transforming Kulumsa WCoE from manual to
combine harvest
Human Capacity Building
• Short term trainings (local or international):
• On average, about 100 trainees per year, >4000 alumni
of CIMMYT training program trained in areas of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Seed production, quality control and business management
Crop improvement (Agronomy/Pathology etc.)
Data management
Nutrition and utilization
Gender mainstreaming
Innovation and technology scaling out
• Long term trainings
– Over years, more than 200 students (PhD + MSc) supported
by CIMMYT
– During the last five years (11 PhD + 28 MSc)
• Mentoring, hands-on trainings and student supervision
Adapting to Climate Change
• CIMMYT collaborated with EARS
on:
• Analyzing past climate changes,
including extreme temperatures and
drought
• Downscaling and analyzing future
(2030 and 2050) climate conditions
(temperature extremes, drought
prevalence and trends, etc.)
• Building a national climate
database (1980-2050)
• Supporting the national climate
change adaptation strategy initiatives
Impacts of Sustained Collaborations
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
Percentage
Percent area covered under improved seed of maize
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Area and Production Trends of Maize in
Ethiopia (1990-2013)
7.00
5.00
Area (M ha)
Production (M T)
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Production and Area
6.00
Area and Production Trends of Wheat in
Ethiopia (1965 – 2013)
Challenges
Challenges
•
Climate change with traditional farming system
•
•
Erratic rain, drought and heat
Lack of suitable machinery and skills of operation
• Natural resource degradation
•
Lack of coordinated efforts to emerging diseases of
global threats
•
•
Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN)
New races of wheat rust (TKTTF)
Challenges … Wheat Rusts
• Stem & Yellow rusts are the most
serious constraints in wheat
• Recurrent epidemics –
• Yellow rust 2010,
• Stem rust 2013/14; 2014/15
• Evolving new races - a major
threat to Ethiopia’s (and global)
wheat production
• Ug99 race group,
• Digalu race (TKTTF)
• Yr27 (Kubsa, Galema)
• Ethiopia & CGIAR (CIMMYT &
ICARDA) are part of the global
initiative to address rusts
Limitations
•
The center’s inability to establish HCA with
Ethiopian Government
•
Long-term sustained funding
•
Some restrictions on exchange of germplasm
•
High staff turnover with partners
Future Areas of Collaboration
• Build national research capacity with new and
novel tools and techniques (e.g., MAS, Genotypic
Selection)
• Develop long term strategy for emerging disease
threats (integrated disease management systems)
• Enhance the adaptive capacity of farmers to
climate change
Future Areas of Collaboration
• Strengthen national capacity (e.g., quarantine,
research-extension linkages)
• Gender focused, value chain analysis
• CA with precise management of inputs
• Precision phenotyping
• “Take it to the farmers”- Sustainable Seed
/Technology delivery
Dr. N. Borlaug
Nobel Peace Prize
Winner & “The
father of Green
Revolution in Asia”
Dr. S. Rajaram,
2014 - World
Food Prize
Winner
The historical legacy of the CIMMYT founder
and pioneering scientists will be further
strengthened and continued in the agricultural
transformation of Ethiopia and the region.
Thanks!

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