LITERACY BY DESIGN J. Harvey Rodgers School Danielle Sochor Director of Curriculum and Personnel Glassboro Schools Steven Hempel Literacy Coach Glassboro Schools MOORE, BEAN, BIRDYSHAW, AND RYCIK (1999) “Adolescents entering the world in the 21st century will read and write more than at any other time in human history. They will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act as citizens, and conduct their personal lives. They will need literacy to cope with the flood of information they will find everywhere they turn. They will need literacy to feed their imaginations so they can create the world of the future.” EDUCATION NATION VIDEO FROM NBC TODAY SHOW WITH MATT LAUER 9/27/2010 http://://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/26184891/vp/393 77857#39377857 THE GLASSBORO SCHOOL DISTRICT… Is committed to a long-term, ongoing plan that meets the needs of both students and teachers. The district believes that professional development should be purposeful, inclusive and require sound research to ensure quality, enhance student learning, and focus on continual growth toward long-term goals. There are ten components of effective instruction that early childhood educators must possess to provide high-quality education to all students from the diverse to the exceptional. 1. KNOWLEDGE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT: Educators must use their knowledge of child development and their relationships with children and families to understand children as individuals and to plan in response to their unique needs and potentials. True early childhood educators have a deep understanding of their students from various analytical and scientific perspectives. Excellent educators in turn will engage students to build upon their emerging understanding by providing meaningful interactions and skilled-based activities while focusing on the social and emotional well being of the child. 2. METHODS FOR TEACHING DIVERSE CHILDREN: The best researchers in early education recognize the cultural diversity, race, economic status, and special education is a vital part to the way a child ascertains information. Educators realize that all children are different but they all can learn with the assistance of accommodations and modifications in the classroom. Teachers employ research-based instructional strategies to meet the needs of the diverse population from the diverse to the exceptional. 3. USE OF MULTIPLE FORMS OF ASSESSMENT: Teachers have the knowledge to provide various developmentally appropriate assessment measures to guide student learning, gauge ability levels, and to measure individual progress over a given time frame. These assessment tools are embedded into the curriculum and take place during the learning process. 4. ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: The Department of Education requires all early childhood programs incorporate a well balance program that includes the following: teacher directed and student directed activities in combination with cooperative learning groups, whole class instruction, and meaningful activities. This is an essential component of competency for early childhood educators. 5. CURRICULUM DESIGN THAT HELPS CHILDREN MAKE CONNECTIONS A coherent curriculum would be designed so it can be integrated across disciplines, focus on essential questions, big ideas, and formal assessments. The learning process occurs naturally through cooperative learning groups, inquiry-based projects, and creative learning centers. Effective integration of the curriculum enables students to transfer knowledge and to make meaningful connections. 6. STRATEGIC USE OF RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Teachers incorporate technology and employ instructional strategies that focus on the 21st century learner. There are user-friendly technological resources that educators use to assist in student achievement. It is incumbent of educators to prepare students for the 21st century knowledge and skills needed to excel in society. 7. PARENT AND FAMILY OUTREACH “Parent involvement in schooling has shown to have strong and long-lasting effects on children’s school performance and to benefit the development of their language, self-help, and motor, adaptive, and basic school skills.” Students are more motivated and possess a positive attitude toward learning. 8. PROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION AND DEVELOPMENT Excellent PK-3 teachers work with colleagues and administrators in a collaborative environment through a Professional Learning Community. Each learning community focuses on curriculum alignment, assessment, and content with a mission to enhance pedagogy and student achievement. Professional development is meaningful and consistent throughout the year. 9. REFLECTION FOR ENHANCED PEDAGOGY Accomplished teachers are reflective but consistently analyzing and synthesizing their own professional practice and growth. 10. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT To provide a continuum of learning throughout all grades THEORIES AND MODELS Educational theories can be traced back to Aristotle and Plato. Today’s reading programs tend to be a compilation of ideas and models based upon theories ranging from Mental Discipline and Behaviorism to Brain based cognitive theories of today. From Vygotsky, Piaget and Rosenblatt to Rumelhart and McClelland educators look at a wide range of theorists and theories on which to base best practice. WHAT IS A LITERACY PROGRAM? “A literacy program, therefore, is a plan for supporting children as they develop their ability to read, write, speak, listen, view, and think or grow into literacy.” -J. David Cooper, 2000 LITERACY DESIGN FORMAT Literacy by Design is divided into two major components: Comprehensive Whole class Instruction Small Group Guided Reading Instruction at students instructional reading level WHAT IS READER’S WORKSHOP? An all encompassing approach to Literacy Instruction Optimal time for the Reading Workshop is 120 minutes daily Reading Workshop includes shared reading, whole group skills instruction, small group guided reading instruction, writing instruction, independent reading time Experiential Learning Centers (Gross motor, fine motor multi-sensory activities) COMPREHENSIVE WHOLE GROUP INSTRUCTION Managing and Implementing the Reading Workshop Teaching Grade level skills and strategies Teaching Themes related to Social Studies and Science Writer’s Workshop EACH THEME IS A 2 WEEK TIME FRAME Objectives Comprehension Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness Fluency Listening Writing EACH THEME… Reading Workshop Has 2 days of modeled reading Has 6 days of shared reading Has 2 days of interactive reading Writing Workshop Modeled Writing Shared Writing Interactive writing Mini-lessons MODELED READING Teacher read aloud from a story related to the theme Related skills include comprehension, phonics, oral language, listening , and vocabulary SHARED READING Teacher conducts shared reading from a big book related to the theme Related skills include comprehension, phonics, oral language, listening , and vocabulary Big book story has 5 individual student books as well as a CD version for listening center INTERACTIVE READING Students have opportunities to interact with the text and work on various skills ASSESSMENT Theme Progress tests Unit tests WHAT IS GUIDED READING? Students are tested to find out each child’s instructional reading level. This testing is ongoing throughout the year. Students of the same level are placed into groups of no more than 6 children. The teacher builds background for the story and teaches critical vocabulary Students read the text silently and teacher listens to each student read and takes anecdotal note. After reading, the teacher begins a skill lesson ranging from phonics instruction to higher order comprehension skills. GUIDED READING SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION Leveled readers in sets of six Grade K levels form AA- C 56 titles fiction and non-fiction Skills in phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, concepts of print, study skills WRITING WORKSHOP Instruction for the theme focuses on a particular process in writing such as drafting, editing etc. Instruction for the theme will also focus on a genre or form of writing such as narrative, persuasive etc. Instruction also focuses on a grammar skill such as periods, commas etc. Materials include interactive charts, organizers, bridge book displays MATHEMATICS IN KINDERGARTEN Mathematics helps us make sense of our world. Early childhood is an excellent time for children to become interested in counting, sorting, building shapes, patterning, measuring, and estimating. It invites children to experience mathematics as they play in, describe, and think about their world. Mathematics is meaningful to children when it is varied, rich, and rooted in real world word problems and applications. WHAT IS EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS? Everyday Mathematics is research-based program created by the University of Chicago School Mathematics. The instructional design was carefully crafted to capitalize on student interest and maximize student learning. High expectations for all students Concepts and skills developed over time and in a variety of contexts Balance among mathematics strands Multiple methods and strategies for problem solving Concrete modeling as a pathway to abstract understanding Collaborative learning in partner and small group activities Cross-curricular applications and connections TOOLS AND EXERCISES USED IN EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS Calculators: Calculators are useful teaching tools. They make it possible for young children to display and read numbers before they are skilled at writing numbers. Calculators can be used to count by any number, forward and backward. They also allow children to solve interesting, everyday problems requiring calculations that might otherwise be too difficult for them to perform. Explorations: Explorations are independent or small-group activities that allow children to investigate, develop and extend math concepts. These are a key part of the math program in the early grades and often involve manipulating materials. During this time teachers interact with students, both for teaching and for assessment. TOOLS AND EXERCISES USED IN EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS Games: Mathematical games are an important part of the Everyday Mathematics program. They reinforce math fact computation and provide an alternative form of practice. They build fact and operation skills, but also reinforce other skills. Journal: The journal contains the problem material and pages on which the children record the results of their activities. It provides a record of their mathematical growth over time and is used in place of student worksheets, workbook, and textbook. Math Boxes: (1-5) (The EDM name for worksheets) are 4 - 6 short problems on a page used on a regular basis for review and practice. Many of these worksheets have blank boxes so teachers can differentiate work for students. TOOLS AND EXERCISES USED IN EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS Math Messages: Teachers begin each day with a Math Message to be completed by the children before the start of the lesson for that day. They consist of problems to solve, directions to follow, tasks to complete, notes to copy, sentences to complete or correct, or brief quizzes. Math Tool Kit: Students use a variety of math tools throughout the year. Ruler, tape measure, geometry template, counters, money, and calculators are among the items kept in the math tool kit. Children learn responsibility for their learning tools and have them available when needed. TOOLS AND EXERCISES USED IN EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS Minute Math (K-3): Minute Math and 5-Minute Math (4-5) are brief activities for transition times and for spare moments throughout the day. The activities serve as a source of continuous review and provide problems for mental problem solving and arithmetic. Projects: Projects cover an assortment of mathematics activities and concepts, and are built around various themes that interest children. The projects are cross-curricular in nature and often include the following science process. TO OUR GLASSBORO SCHOOLS FAMILY… Thank you for coming out and being part of our Parent Curriculum Meeting tonight. Your presence and support helped make it a success.