### Class 12 Lesson 2

ss{IkvXh PohnXw
kbnepw kaql¯nepw
kotdm ae-_mÀ k-bpsS hnizmk
]cn-io-e\ ]mTm-hen.
12
A²ymbw cv
hnizmkhncp² kn²m´§Ä
hnizmkhncp² kn²m´§Ä
 {]Xyb-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Nne Bi-b§-Ä
 a\p-jysâ kl-P-hm-k-\-I-fnÂ \n¶v DÛq-X-am-Ip¶ {]h-W-X-IÄ
 Xncp-h-N\w sXän-²-cn¨hcpw sXämbn hymJym-\n-¡p-¶-hcpw
DbÀ¯p¶ shÃp-hn-fn-IÄ
1. AtÚ-b-hmZw (Agnosticism)
•
uXn-Ihpw A\p--h-{]-Z-hp-amb Xe-§Ä¡-¸pdw IS-¶p-sN-Ãm-\pÅ
a\p-jy-a-\-Ênsâ Ign-hns\ tNmZyw sN¿p\v ZmÀi-\nI \ne-]m-SmWv
AtÚ-b-hm-Zw.
•
Ahn-Sps¯ Is-¯m³ a\p-jy³ Ai-à-\m-Wv. F¦nÂ F´n-\mWv Cuiz-c-s\¡p-dn¨p a\p-jy³ hy{KX ImWn-¡p-¶Xv ?
2. bpàn-hmZw (Rationalism)
a\p-jysâ AÚ-Xbpw b-hp-amWv Cuiz-c-hn-izm-k-¯nsâ Ddhn-Sw. {]]© {]Xn-m-k-§fpsS bYmÀ°ImcWw Is-¯m³ Ign-bm¯ a\pjy³ Ahsb hni-Zo-I-cn-¡m³ sI«n-¨a¨ bpàn-lo-\-amb k¦-ev]-amWv
Cuiz-c³. imkv{Xw t\Sn-¯-cp¶ uXn-I-t\-«-§fmWp bpàn-hm-ZnIÄ DbÀ¯n-¡m-«p-¶-Xv.
F¶mÂ… bYmÀY imkv{XÚ-·m-À tbmPn-¡p-¶n-Ã. Cu {]]©w apgp-h³
GtXm AZr-iy-i-àn-bpsS {]hÀ¯-\-ta-J-e-bm-sW¶p imkv{X-Ú-·mÀ.
3. uXn-I-hmZw (Materialism)
•
]ZmÀY-amWp bmYmÀXvYyw, AXn-\-¸p-d-sam-¶p-anÃ.
ssZhw, Bßm-hv, ac-Wm-\-´c-Po-hnXw Ch-sbÃmw anYy. Ncn-{X¯nsâ {kjvSmhpw hn[m-Xmhpw a\p-jy³ Xs¶. {]]-©-¯nsâ DXv]-¯nbnepw e£y-¯nepw uXn-Im-Xo-X-amb Hcp ]¦p \ntj-[n-¡p-¶p. F¶psa¶pw ØnXn-sN-¿p¶ uXnI ]ZmÀY-§fp-sS-sbÃmw {]hÀ¯-\hpw
AXn-\mÂ Hcp {]Ir-Xym-Xo-X-i-àn-bpsS Bhiy-anÃ F¶v AhÀ hmZn¡p-¶p. uXn-I-hm-Zn-I-fnÂ ap³]-nÂ \nÂ-¡p-¶Xp amÀIvknÌv Nn´I-cmWv.
4. lyqa-\nkw (Humanism)
a\p-jy-a-l-Xz-¯nsâ t]cnÂ ssZhs¯ \ntj[n-¡p-¶-h-À. a\p-jy-\mWv FÃmänsâbpw am\-ZWvUw. kzÀKhpw \c-Ihpw bpKm-´y-¯nse
bmYmÀYy-§fÃ adn-¨v Cu qan-bnÂ Xs¶ kw-hn-¡p¶ Imcy-§fmWv. a\p-jy\p ssZh-s¯-s¡mv Bh-iy-anÃ.
• a\p-jy³ Xsâ-Xs¶ Bß-k-¯sb BZÀi-h-Xv¡-cn¨p
• cq]w-sIm-Sp-¡p¶ k¦ev] krjvSn-bmWp ssZh-sa¶pw,
• a\p-jysâ k¯ Xs¶-bmWp ssZh-sa¶pw,
• a\p-jy³ Xsâ k¦-ev]-¯nÂ ImWp¶ ssZh-¯nsâ ]qÀ®-X-bn-tebv¡p hf-cm³
a\p-jy\p Xs¶ km[n-¡p-sa¶p Icp-Xp¶
• lyqa-\n-Ìp-I-fp-ap-v.
5. I½yq-Wnkw (Communism)
• {^U-dnIv GwKÂkpw (1818-þ1883)
ImdÂamÀIvkpw (1820-þ1895)
• \qX-\-km-aq-lnI hyh-Øn-Xn-bpsS
XXz-im-kv{X-w
• C¶v hnc-en-se-®m-hp¶ cmPy-§ fnÂ
am{Xw.
• km¼-¯nI Ak-a-Xz-¯n\p ]cn-l-cambn uXn-I-hm-Zhpw \nco-iz-chm-Zhpw hÀK-k-a-c-hpw.
• e£y-¯n-\p-thn GXp amÀKhpw kzoIcn-¡m-sa¶ sXämb \ne-]mS.v
• uXn-I-am-bXp
am{XamWp kXyw F¶p iTn-¡p¶
I½yq-Wn-Ìp-ImÀ {]]-©-¯n\-Xo-X-\mb ssZh-¯nÂ hnizkn-¡p-¶n-Ã. AXn-\mÂ ssZhhn-izm-k-¯n\pw aX-¯n\pw
I½yq-Wn-k-¯nÂ Øm\-an-Ã.
• I½yq-Wnkw shdpw Hcp atX-Xc XXz-im-kv{X-a-Ã.
• \nco-iz-c-Xz-¯nÂ A[n-jvTn-X-amb Hcp {]Xy-bim-kv{X-am-WXv.
• Cuiz-c\pw a\p-jym-ßmhpw ac-Wm-\´-c-Po-hn-Xhpw CÃ F¶p Xs¶bmWv Cu {]Xy-b-imkv{Xw ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv.
I½yq-Wnkw ]peÀ¯p¶ aX-\n-tj-[w, \nco-iz-c-Xzw, P\m-[n-]-Xy¯nsâ t]cnÂ \S-¸n-em-¡p¶ ^mkn-kw, A{I-a-amÀ¤w, e£yw amÀKs¯ km[q-Icn-¡p-¶p-sh¶ XXzw, hyàn kzmX-{´y-¯nsâ \ntj[w F¶o kn²m-´§Ä {InkvXphn-izm-kn-IÄ¡v AXns\ Akzo--Im-cy-am-¡p-¶p.
I½yq-Wnkw Hcp \nco-izc {]Øm-\-am-b-Xn-\mepw A{I-aamÀKs¯ km[q-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\mepw k Cu {]Xy-b-im-kv{Xs¯ FXnÀ¡p-¶p.
ss{IkvXh hnizm-khpw I½yq-Wn-k-¯nsâ {]Xy-im-kv{X-]-c-amb \ne-]mSp-Ifpw X½nÂ Hcn-bv¡epw tNÀ¶p-t]m-hp-I-bn-Ã.
hntbm-Pn-¸nsâ {][m-\-ta-J-e-IÄ
• 1. \nco-iz-c-Xzhpw aX-\n-tj[-hpw
•
aXs¯ ab-¡p-a-cp-¶mbpw ssZhs¯ a\p-jysâ k¦-ev] krjvSn-bmbpw
ImWp¶ I½yq-Wn-k-¯nsâ Cu \ne-]mSp kbv¡p kzoIm-cy-a-Ã.
• 2. hÀK-k-a-chpw A{I-a-amÀKhpw
•
a\p-jy-k-aq-l-¯nÂ n¶-Xbpw i{Xp-Xbpw hfÀ¯p¶ Cu \ne-]mSv i{Xp-¡sf
kvt\ln-¡m\pw ktlm-Z-c-§Ä¡p-thn kzPo-h³ AÀ¸n-¡m\pw ]Tn-¸n¨ CutimbpsS {]t_m-[-\-§Ä¡p hncp-²-am-b-Xn-\mÂ kbv¡p kzoIm-cy-a-Ã.
• 3. kzIm-cy-kz-¯-h-Im-i-\n-tj[w
• kzIm-cy-kz-¯-h-Im-is¯ k Hcn-bv¡epw XÅn-¸-d-bp-¶n-Ã. AtX-k-abw
kzIm-cy-kz¯v s]mXp-\-·-sb-¡qSn e£yw h¨p-thWw D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³
F¶mWp k ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv.
• 4. sXmgn-em-fn-bpsS kÀhm-[n-]Xyw
• sXmgn-em-fn-bp-sSbpw sXmgnÂ ZmXm-hn-sâbpw ]c-kv]c
{]m[m\yw AwKo-I-cn-¨p-sImv Ccp-Iq-«-cp-sSbpw \ymb-amb Ah-Im-i§Ä kwc-£n-¡-s¸-S-W-sa-¶-XmWp k-bpsS \ne-]m-Sv.
bpàn-hmZw t]mepÅ kn²m-´§-fpw, amÀIvknkw t]mepÅ
{]Xy-bim-kv{X-§fpw Cuiz-cs\ \ntj-[n-¡p-Ibpw a\p-jy-k-aq-l-¯nsâ
sFIys¯ inYn-e-am-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-t¼mÄ temI-¯nsâ [mÀ½nI iàn-bmb
kbv¡p au\w ]men-¡m-\m-hn-Ã.
hgn-sX-äp¶ temIs¯ t\Àh-gn¡p \bn-¡m-\pÅ Npa-Xe AhÄ¡p \ndth-tä--Xp-v. AXn-\m-emWp ssZh-hn-izm-ks¯ \ntj-[n-¡p¶
{]Xyb-im-kv{X-§-sfbpw {]Øm-\-§sfbpw k FXnÀ¡p-¶-Xv.
ss{IkvX-h-hn-izm-kn-I-sf¶ \ne-bnÂ \½fpw {]kvXpX kn²m´§tfbpw {]Øm-\-§sfbpw Ipdn¨v Pm{KX ]men-¡p-hm³ IS-s¸-«ncn-¡p-¶p.