Nationalism & Collective Consciousness

Report
NATIONALISM & COLLECTIVE
CONSCIOUSNESS
How We Got Here & the Effect on Identity
KEY STAGES IN THE HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM
Scientific Revolution
 Age of Reason
 Oppressive Nature of
Monarchs/Wide
Ranging Empires

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Started in the 16th
century
 Ideas began to alter
science and medicine,
this in turn brought
forth new technologies
and improved
methods of research
that led to an
explosion of
knowledge.

Nicolaus
Copernicus
(1473–
1543)
published
On the
Revolutions
of the
Heavenly
Spheres in
1543, which
advanced
the
heliocentric
theory of
cosmology.
Andreas
Vesalius
(1514–1564)
published De
Humani
Corporis
Fabrica (On
the Fabric of
the Human
Body) (1543),
which
discredited
Galen's views.
He found that
the
circulation of
blood resolved
from pumping
of the heart.
He also
assembled the
first human
skeleton from
cutting open
cadavers.
AGE OF REASON
The development of the Scientific Revolution and
the effect it had on the physical world influenced
philosophers.
 They applied principles of science to the study of
government and society.
 The beginning of the 18th century saw many
philosophers using reason to free themselves
from ignorance and tradition and thereby become
enlightened.

This
illustration
depicts a
classical
Greek
figure,
utilizing
instruments
which
represent
the modern
Age of
Reason.
OPPRESSIVE NATURE OF MONARCHY/
WIDE RANGING EMPIRES
Most monarchs who refused to embrace the
enlightened period would not have treated their
citizens well.
 These countries were mostly feudal in nature,
and did not want liberal thought and reforms
inherent in the Age of Enlightenment to be
brought forth in their nations.
 Citizens often fought for civil and human rights
that Monarchs would not relinquish.

THREE PHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
NATIONALISM
I.
II.
III.
National Awakening (late 18th century - early
19th century)
Political Phase (mid 19th century)
Mature Phase (late 19th century – 20th century)
FIRST PHASE – NATIONAL AWAKENING
(18TH – 19TH CENTURY)
Generally, the rise of nationalism has gone hand
in hand with the rise of the presupposed
participation of all members of the nation
(citizens) in the affairs of the state and their
active participation as subjects; the people cease
to be mere passive objects of history.
 Thus, nationalism is closely linked with the selfdetermination of the life of the group, with the
introduction of modern science and technology,
languages, beliefs, traditions, common territory
and religion.

SECOND PHASE – POLITICAL PHASE (MID
19TH CENTURY)


Nationalism was the
most successful political
force of the 19th century.
It emerged from two
main sources:
The Romantic exaltation
of “feeling” and “identity”
 The Liberal requirement
that a legitimate state be
based on a “people”
rather than, for example,
a dynasty, God, or
imperial domination
(divine right).

THIRD PHASE – MATURE PHASE (LATE
19TH – 20TH CENTURY)
As Liberalism evolved, Conservatives tried to
maintain the strangle hold on the everyday
affairs of their citizens.
 They crushed political, socio and economical
movements by people.
 Censorship of media and knowledge presented in
schools was implemented to maintain control
over their everyday lives.
 By this point the ideas of nationalism spread
from one country to others and it was very
difficult to stop this movement of change.

COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS

The evolution of nationalism has led to the
modern development of a collective consciousness,
which can be defined as follows:

a group or nation may share a collective
consciousness when its members collectively share
similar values, beliefs, and internalized feelings
based on their shared experiences. A collective
consciousness can develop when the people of a
nation focus on their identity as a group rather than
on their identities as individuals.
WHAT IS A CANADIAN COLLECTIVE
CONSCIOUSNESS?
Consider the following quotes from influential
Canadians.
 A Canadian is someone who keeps asking the
question, “What is a Canadian?”



Canada is a country built against any common,
geographic, historic or cultural sense.


Irving Layton, Canadian Poet
Pierre Elliott Trudeau, former PM of Canada
Canada is the greatest nation in this country.

Allan Lamport, former Toronto mayor
HISTORICAL EVENTS THAT DEVELOPED A
CANADIAN NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS
Tens of thousands of British Loyalists moved
North to British colonies after the American
Revolution.
 The trans-Canada railway was completed in
1885, uniting people from coast to coast.
 During WWI, Canadian troops were allowed to
fight together for the first time – instead of with
the British or the French.
 In 1982 the Constitution Act was passed making
granting Canada total sovereignty from Britain.
 First Nations peoples settle and live on lands the
would become modern day Canada, long before
the arrival of Europeans.

VIMY RIDGE






For many Canadians Vimy Ridge is a defining moment for
Canada as a nation.
Four Canadian divisions (drawn from all regions of
Canada) stormed the ridge at 5:30 AM on the 9th of April
1917.
Despite heavy German fire the Canadian units pushed
forward, showing incredible bravery and discipline.
The victory was an important strategic success, and earned
the Canadian troops a reputation as formidable, effective
soilders.
In 1922, the French government recognized the sacrifice
paid by Canadian soldiers, and ceded Vimy Ridge to
Canada to allow for the construction of a war memorial.
By the end of the war more than 67,000 Canadians were
killed and 173,000 people injured (total population of
Canada at the time was 7,879,000)
The Battle
of Vimy
Ridge, a
painting by
Richard
Jack.
Canadian
War
Museum.
The 1936
unveiling
of the
Vimy
Ridge
Memorial
by Edward
VIII, king
of Canada;
the
sculpture
represents
Canada
mourning
her fallen
sons.
SIGNIFICANCE OF VIMY RIDGE TO
CANADIAN IDENTITY


The Battle of Vimy Ridge has considerable significance for
Canada. Although the battle is not generally considered the
greatest achievement of the Canadian Corps in terms of
strategic importance or results obtained, it was the first
instance in which all four Canadian divisions, made up of
troops drawn from all parts of the country, fought as a
cohesive formation.
The image of national unity and achievement is what
initially gave the battle importance for Canada. According
to Pierce, "The historical reality of the battle has been
reworked and reinterpreted in a conscious attempt to give
purpose and meaning to an event that came to symbolize
Canada's coming of age as a nation.“ The idea that
Canada's national identity and nationhood were born out of
the battle is an opinion that is widely held in military and
general histories of Canada. Outside of Canada the battle
has much less significance and is simply noted as being
part of the larger British offensive of the Battle of Arras.
THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS &
FREEDOMS (1982)

The charter guarantees freedoms such as:




Freedom of conscience and religion
Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression,
including freedom of the press
Freedom of peaceful assembly
It also guarantees legal rights such as:
The presumption of innocence
 The right to life, liberty, and security of person
 Security against unreasonable search and seizure


It guarantees democratic rights, such as:
The right to vote
 Mobility rights
 Equal protection under the law for all Canadians

THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS &
FREEDOMS (1982)
While the rights listed
are not unique to
Canada, the Charter
also includes language
rights that are
particularly
Canadian.
 English and French
are established as
official languages, and
certain minority
language education
rights are guaranteed.

EXPLORING CANADIAN PERSPECTIVES
Part of the unique national consciousness of
Canada derives from the cultural plurality that
exists within the larger context of Canadian
identity.
 This is perhaps most evident in the recognition of
distinct nations within the country of Canada;
particularly the recognition of First Nations and
Québécois .

QUÉBÉCOIS NATIONALISM


Francophone identity as
Québécois emerged in the 20th
century, as both a political and
linguistic distinction from the
Anglophone population in
Canada and from Francophones
elsewhere in Canada.
Furthermore, until the last
several decades of the 20th
century Quebec’s economy was
largely in the hands of the
province’s English speaking
population.
 The provincial government
encouraged EnglishCanadians and Americans to
establish business in Quebec.
This resulted in Anglophones
dominating Quebec business.
THE QUIET REVOLUTION
This economic and social disparity led to a desire
amongst Québécois to achieve greater economic
opportunities and political control… thus the
Quiet Revolution was born.
 During the Quiet Revolution several reforms
were introduced:

The modernization of Quebec’s industry
 The nationalization of the hydroelectric industry
 Reforms to the education system
 The establishment of social programs and public
institutions to offer services in French

THE FLQ CRISIS





For some Québécois the reforms of the Quiet
Revolution weren’t enough, and this eventually led to
the formation of the Front de Liberation du Quebec
(FLQ).
The FLQ sought to spark change through protest and
violence.
In 1970 kidnappings and murder by one radical
faction of the group caused the government of Canada
to invoke the War Measures Act.
This resulted in the suspension of citizens’ legal
rights, and the arrest and detention of over 400
Québécois without charges being laid.
This event created a division between some Québécois
and the rest of Canada.
MODERN QUÉBÉCOIS IDENTITY
The deep seeded resentment that was sown
during the FLQ crisis still lingers in modern day
Quebec.
 A referendum in 1995 almost saw Quebec attain
independence from the rest of Canada.
 Although those in favour of remaining part of
Canada won by the slimmest of margins, the
referendum served the purpose of reinforcing in
the minds of Canadians of the desire of many
Québécois to attain sovereignty over their own
affairs.


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