Handout - Texas Association of School Psychologists

Report
Texas Association of School Psychologists
Annual Conference
Norma S. Guerra, PhD
NCSP, LSSP
Agenda
 Overview of clinical problem solving theoretical
framework
 LIBRE Model
 Ground rules
 Exercise
 Problem solving as a clinical tool
 Data units
 Scoring and Implications
 Intervention and Services
Social Cognitive Theory
 Albert Bandura – Social Learning
Theory - People learn by observing
other people’s actions.
 Active agent in life - beliefs, selfperceptions, and expectations
 Social Cognitive Theory includes
person/cognition, behavior and
environment as a reciprocal interaction
The Focus is on the Individual
 Bandura & Schunk (1981) explain competence and
efficacy as learned skills
 Bandura (1986) further details the dynamic self to
explain that we are not observers of our own lives
 Self-agency involves core properties of:
 Intentionality
 Forethought
 Self-reactiveness
 Self-reflection (Bandura, 2006)
Self-Efficacy
 “Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to
organize and execute the courses of action required
to manage prospective situations.” (Bandura, 1986)
 What does self-efficacy do?
 The choices we make
 The effort we put forth
 How long we persist when difficulty arises
 How we feel
Interactive Relation
Outcomes/ Behaviors
M
Goal Progress
Motivation
Self-Influences/
Personal
Goals
Self-Efficacy
Outcome Expectations
Attributions
Social Influences/
Environmental
Models
Instruction
Feedback
Sources of Self-Efficacy
MASTERY EXPERIENCES – (Most
powerful) Successful experiences
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES –
Accomplishments modeled by someone else
SOCIAL PERSUASION –
“pep talk” or encouragement
AROUSAL – Physical and
psychological reactions – excited, tense
Goal Orientation
 Factors that Affect Change
 Schunk and Zimmerman - increased capacity to process
information, use strategies, and meet a defined goal
 Goal orientation involves an individual’s engagement in
achieving a focal activity
 Self-efficacy - Past experience, perception and good
consequences heightens motivation
 Goal Setting - more likely to model behaviors that will
help them attain goals
LIBRE Model
 Multi-faceted meta-cognitive social activity designed
to slow down the problem solving process
 There are five prompted steps that are based on social
cognitive and goal orientation theory to address initial
and sustained attention
 The exchange begins with an invitation, ground rules
and the five open-ended questions
LIBRE Model Ground Rules
Respect – all persons involved in problem solving must
be upheld in a position of esteem understanding that
there is a vulnerability involved in disclosing challenge
Client Safety – boundaries must be maintained
Safe Environment – ensure a comfortable private setting
Confidentiality - ensured within defined parameters
Exercise
LIBRE Model
 L – to listen
 I – to identify your focus/concern/challenge
 B – to brainstorm
 R – to reality test options
 E – to encourage
Each has as its goal the monitoring of investment
Using the LIBRE Model as a
Clinical Tool
 Erikson (1968) explains that identity development
involves an internal (as the person becomes aware of
self) and an external (in relationship to others)
resolution of crisis
 It is these crisis points and the development of
resolution that define who we are, what we want, and
provide opportunity for development
LIBRE Model
 Designed as a critical thinking template to facilitate
problem solving/decision-making
 The goal is to affirm, empower and teach self-efficacy
skills and management needed to manage the
processing of concerns and problems as they arise
Data Units
 The student’s words are the only data collected
 Only the student’s words are analyzed for social
context (e.g., what you are thinking, what you are
feeling, how you express what is occurring within your
environment), goal orientation (e.g., within your
control, detailed) and self-regulated attentiveness
 The observed attentiveness: initial and sustained
attention is used to define engagement styles
Intervention and Services
Engagement Style Scoring and
Implications
• Venting
• Goalfocused
• Actual
+,-
+,+
-,+
-,• Potential
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Motivational Investment Levels
Questions & Answers
 When do I use it?
 Can I use it in combination with other interventions?
 Are there limits to the populations that it can be used
with?
Thank you
 Norma S. Guerra, PhD
NSCP, LSSP
[email protected]

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