Claim As the number of issues related to food safety and horticulture education are increasing, we are going to argue that learning and knowing the issues through community gardens such as GreenLeaf that produce healthy and organic food and develop the community is important. Food safety History of Food Safety After World War II, countries such as Japan and the United States, realized agricultural modernization one after another that was based on the industrial modernization. This achievement helped these countries enrich the food supplies; however, some food safety problems came up. Food Additives and how they Affect Children What are food additives? invented in the 1930s preserve flavors or improve appearance Common additives: coloring agents, flavoring agents, sweeteners, preservatives, etc. Over 3000 additives are used in USA food industry Food additives are a burden to our bodies Issues on food additives standards Approval process of standard was only test additives in separate Standards are based on adults Effects on children Smaller body than adults 60 of ‘safe’ additives have been associated with children’s behavioral problems For example - hyperactivity. (Food colorings and a preservative, which could be found a huge amount in soft drinks) Food-borne disease What is food-borne illness? Food-borne illness is also called food poisoning and is caused when toxic levels of pathogens or bacteria appear in food. Food-borne disease Situation: Many people are facing this disease each year. Developed countries: United States: 14 million illnesses, 60,000 hospitalizations, and 1,800 deaths each year. Australia: There have been cases of food poisoning over the past 10 years. Developing country: China: 2,305 food poisoning accidents during 2004. 42,876 people were involved and 255 people died. Compared with 2003, the number of accidents, the number of people involved and the number of deaths changed respectively 55.6%, 44.9% and −0.03%. Education on food safety Research done by Yarrow and Remig Focus on food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and selfreported practices Result of the research Based on their data and conclusion, students in different majors react to food safety problems very differently. Health major students are more likely to be concerned about food safety than non-health major ones. However, after a proper food safety education, students’ attitudes toward food safety improve, which indicates that education is helpful and useful. Education and gardening background Because we know that food additives cause negative effects such as food-borne illness among children, adults need to educate children about sustainability. One of the most popular activities about sustainability is gardening. Sustainable Horticulture Sustainable Horticulture Sustainable horticulture is the term that explains the process of planting or growing organic food products. Since the term ‘sustainable horticulture’ is fairly new, if the concept of it is not developed or supported among people, the term will lose the meaning and will not have any influence on people’s lives. Education on gardening Background Recently, a lot of educators have participated in sustainable practices. They are aware that sustainability, especially in gardening, needs to be appreciated and that students can find so much potential from gardening activities. By touching the soil and planting and growing their own plants, children gained a significant amount of general nutrition knowledge about Impact of Garden-Based Nutrition Education and Positive Effects gardening. Overall outcomes Children’s outdoor gardening experiences helped them to acquire more learning and understanding skills. reduced disease risk. demonstrate good health and Analysis Food Safety: The study shows that college students need to be educated in food safety, one of the most significant parts of daily life. Not only health major students need to deal with food, but also all major students need to learn about food and food safety. Education on food safety is essential to students; and it also will benefit them in their future lives. Gardening: Because the experiments about gardening with children demonstrate positive effects, it is important for people to be aware how gardening can fix health problems such as diabetes and improve children’s academic performance. Solution: GreenLeaf GreenLeaf engages youth in urban agriculture, farming on available lots in neighborhoods that don't have access to fresh fruits and vegetables. GreenLeaf: Participants At GreenLeaf young people ages 14 – 18 earn a fair wage while they grow food for their communities and explore issues of health, nutrition, and social justice. TED – Leah Bry (GreenLeaf) Leah Bry's TED: the founder and executive director of GreenLeaf Relationship with the Local Food Community In a society where a lot of Americans forget about the value of the food that they are eating and prefer to eat fast food to save their time or money, by being established in a highly industrialized neighborhood where people cannot get access to healthy vegetables or fruits, GreenLeaf gives opportunities and suggests people to eat healthy. Relationship with the Local Food Community (Cont.) 20% of food goes to Hunger Relief Organization for donations 65% are sold to markets 15% is consumed from participants Relationship with the Local Food Community (Cont.) Discovered what it's like to make personnel decisions since he and his co-workers jointly hire new staff. Become adept at public speaking, giving presentations in huge auditoriums and fielding questions from listeners. Learned about aquaponics – a cutting-edge, sustainable food production system – plus a lot of old-fashioned gardening techniques. Tasted fresh fruits and vegetables that he had never even heard of before, such as a haogen melon that was "incredible." Learned business skills and honed better work habits such as getting to his job on time every day. Result of the survey School of Year Ethnicity Freshman Sophmore Caucasian Junior Black Senior Asian Others Gender Female Male Result of the survey States in US Colorado Texas California Illinois Hawaii Oregon Do you think you are eating healthy? Yes No Probably Yes Porbably No Between Yes and No Conclusion Positive effects through community gardens are demonstrated by children's improved health and academics. GreenLeaf is a great example. If more schools and families become involved in community gardens, people will reach more fruitions.