AP 2 Columbus and de Las Casas Primary Source Work

Report
APUSH
Mr. Weber
Activator
 1. What do you think of our textbook?
 How much did you read?
 What did you like?
 What did you not like so much?
 What did you find difficult?
 2. How many pages do you anticipate reading tonight?
Agenda

Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes)

First Americans Lecture / Chapter Outline (20 minutes)

Columbus and De Las Casas reading (15 minutes)

European’s View of Native Americans – observing primary
sources (20-30 minutes)

“Voices of Freedom” primary source analysis (30-45 minutes)

APPARTS primary source strategy (10 minutes)

Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes)
Objective
 You all will…
 Examine the transatlanic encounters between
Europeans and American Indians, focusing on Spain’s
empire and the Pueblo Revolt.
 (From CollegeBoard’s AP topic #2).
 Analyze primary sources and record your observations
in writing.
Give Me Liberty!
Ch. 1 Presentation
(20-30 minutes)
I. First
Americans
A. Arrival of Native
Americans
- Gradual settlement
across Americas
- Environmental change
and rise of agriculture
B. Aztec and Inca
Empires
I. First Americans (cont’d)
C.
North American Indians
D. North American Indians
Wide-ranging and evolving societies
Distinguishing factors among Indian
societies

Mississippi Valley

Political organization

Ohio River Valley

Religious beliefs

Southwest

Language

West Coast

Absence of shared identity

Great Plains

Southeast

Northeast
3.


4.
Common characteristics among Indian
societies

Interrelations among Indian societies

Trade

Diplomacy

War
5.
Spiritual outlook

Place of ritual

Views on natural and supernatural

Views on secular and religious

Conceptions of property

Relative lack of material inequality

Systems of gender relations
European disdain for Indian customs and
values
II. Indian freedom,
European freedom
Indian conceptions of freedom
Basis in collective belonging, self-determination,
mutuality
Absence of basis in individual autonomy, private
property
European incomprehension of
European conceptions of freedom
Christian liberty
Freedom from sin
No freedom of religious choice
Freedom and inequality in early modern England
Emphasis on ordered, hierarchical society
Gender hierarchies
Class hierarchies
Unequal distribution of freedoms
III. Start of European
expansion


Initial aims

Commercial sea route to Asia

Circumvention of Islamic middlemen
Slavery and Africa

Traditional patterns of African slavery

Acceleration of slave trade following
European arrival
Eastward expansion


Portugal’s exploration, extension of
trading empire

West Africa

Cape of Good Hope

India

Far East
Westward expansion


Portugal’s colonization of Atlantic
islands

Sugar plantations

Slaves from Africa

Voyages of Christopher Columbus

Quest for westward route to Asia

Sponsorship of Spain
First Spanish presence in New World

Settlements at Hispaniola

Explorations by Amerigo Vespucci
First English and Portuguese presence in
New World

John Cabot (Newfoundland)

Pedro Cabral (Brazil)
IV. Spanish conquest of New
World


Motivations

Acquisition of wealth

National glory

Spread of Catholicism
The Conquistadores

Vasco Núňez de Balboa’s expedition to
Panama, the Pacific

Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition around
the world

Hernán Cortés’s conquest of the Aztecs


Background on Aztec empire

Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the
Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas

Background on Inca empire

Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the
Incas

Demographic consequences

“Columbian exchange” of goods and
people

Devastation of Indian population

Breadth and magnitude

Causes

War

Enslavement

Disease
Spanish conquistadores murdering Indians at Cuzco, in modern-day
Peru. The Dutch-born engraver Theodor de Bry and his sons
illustrated ten volumes about New World exploration published
between 1590 and 1618. A Protestant, de Bry created vivid images
that helped to spread the Black Legend of Spain as a uniquely cruel
colonizer.
VI. The Spanish Empire
Spain and the Indians


Dual agenda of saving souls
and exploiting labor
External restraints on
brutalization of Indians

Pope Paul III’s ban on
Indian enslavement

Bartolomé de las Casas’s
Destruction of the Indies

Spanish reforms of
colonist-Indian relations


Abolition of Indian
enslavement

Abolition of encomienda
system

Implementation of
repartimiento system
Continuing abuse of Indians
Colonial labor system at end of
sixteenth century

Involuntary wage labor by
Indians

Slave labor by Africans
Emergence of Black Legend image
of Spanish colonizers
Spanish explorations of North
America

Motivations

Riches

Strategic bases

Religious conversion
VI. The Spanish
Empire
Spanish explorations of North
America
2.Exploratory expeditions
Juan Ponce de Léon
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
Hernando de Soto
Cabeza de Vaca
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
3.Devastation of Indian communities
4.Establishment of Spanish
settlements
In present-day Southeast
In present-day Southwest
VI. The Spanish Empire
Pueblo Revolt


Pueblo Revolt
Sources of Pueblo resentment of
colonial authorities

Labor exploitation

Pressure to convert to
Catholicism

Assault on Pueblo religious
traditions

Failure to protect Pueblos from
drought, external attacks
The 1680 Revolt

Popé

Background

Leadership

Unity of Pueblo rebels

Defeat and ouster of Spanish
colonizers
3.
Aftermath of revolt

Eradication of Spanish cultural
presence

Collapse of Pueblo unity

Return of Spanish colonial rule

Easing of colonial practices
toward Pueblos
VII. The French and Dutch
empires

Overall significance



As part of Atlantic rivalry with
Spain
Modesty of, compared to
Spanish empire
The French empire
The Dutch empire

Establishment and scope of

Place within Dutch commercial
empire

Conceptions of liberty and
toleration

Social and economic
arrangements

Initial aims

Initial obstacles

Limits of growth

Establishment and scope of

Relations with Indians

Relations with Indians

Social and economic
arrangements

Limits of growth
European’s Thinking about
Indigenous Peoples
 Christopher Columbus:
 Rethinking Schools,
pp.89-102
 Lies My Teacher Told
Me, pp.38-39.
 De Las Casas
 History of the Indies
European’s View of Native
Americans
 What do you see?
 (Write down only
observations based on
the document).
European’s View of Native
Americans
Voices of Freedom

Turn to pp.38-39 in Give Me Liberty!

In groups examine either Bartolome de Las Casas’ History of the
Indies or Josephe’s “Declaration of Joseph.”

Answer the following questions:

1. Observation: What kind of document is it? What is the title?
Who is the author? When was it written? For what audience was
it written?

2. Expression: What do you find interesting or important about
this document? Is there a particular phrase or section you find
particularly meaningful or surprising?

3. Connection: What does this document tell us about life at the
time it was written? What ideas of freedom are apparent in the
document?
Primary Source Strategy: APPARTS
Exit ticket
Homework
 Continue reading Give Me Liberty! Ch.1 pp.1-40 due
Tuesday.
 Zinn reading questions.
 Prepare for debate tomorrow.

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