APUSH Mr. Weber Activator 1. What do you think of our textbook? How much did you read? What did you like? What did you not like so much? What did you find difficult? 2. How many pages do you anticipate reading tonight? Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) First Americans Lecture / Chapter Outline (20 minutes) Columbus and De Las Casas reading (15 minutes) European’s View of Native Americans – observing primary sources (20-30 minutes) “Voices of Freedom” primary source analysis (30-45 minutes) APPARTS primary source strategy (10 minutes) Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes) Objective You all will… Examine the transatlanic encounters between Europeans and American Indians, focusing on Spain’s empire and the Pueblo Revolt. (From CollegeBoard’s AP topic #2). Analyze primary sources and record your observations in writing. Give Me Liberty! Ch. 1 Presentation (20-30 minutes) I. First Americans A. Arrival of Native Americans - Gradual settlement across Americas - Environmental change and rise of agriculture B. Aztec and Inca Empires I. First Americans (cont’d) C. North American Indians D. North American Indians Wide-ranging and evolving societies Distinguishing factors among Indian societies Mississippi Valley Political organization Ohio River Valley Religious beliefs Southwest Language West Coast Absence of shared identity Great Plains Southeast Northeast 3. 4. Common characteristics among Indian societies Interrelations among Indian societies Trade Diplomacy War 5. Spiritual outlook Place of ritual Views on natural and supernatural Views on secular and religious Conceptions of property Relative lack of material inequality Systems of gender relations European disdain for Indian customs and values II. Indian freedom, European freedom Indian conceptions of freedom Basis in collective belonging, self-determination, mutuality Absence of basis in individual autonomy, private property European incomprehension of European conceptions of freedom Christian liberty Freedom from sin No freedom of religious choice Freedom and inequality in early modern England Emphasis on ordered, hierarchical society Gender hierarchies Class hierarchies Unequal distribution of freedoms III. Start of European expansion Initial aims Commercial sea route to Asia Circumvention of Islamic middlemen Slavery and Africa Traditional patterns of African slavery Acceleration of slave trade following European arrival Eastward expansion Portugal’s exploration, extension of trading empire West Africa Cape of Good Hope India Far East Westward expansion Portugal’s colonization of Atlantic islands Sugar plantations Slaves from Africa Voyages of Christopher Columbus Quest for westward route to Asia Sponsorship of Spain First Spanish presence in New World Settlements at Hispaniola Explorations by Amerigo Vespucci First English and Portuguese presence in New World John Cabot (Newfoundland) Pedro Cabral (Brazil) IV. Spanish conquest of New World Motivations Acquisition of wealth National glory Spread of Catholicism The Conquistadores Vasco Núňez de Balboa’s expedition to Panama, the Pacific Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition around the world Hernán Cortés’s conquest of the Aztecs Background on Aztec empire Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the Aztecs Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas Background on Inca empire Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the Incas Demographic consequences “Columbian exchange” of goods and people Devastation of Indian population Breadth and magnitude Causes War Enslavement Disease Spanish conquistadores murdering Indians at Cuzco, in modern-day Peru. The Dutch-born engraver Theodor de Bry and his sons illustrated ten volumes about New World exploration published between 1590 and 1618. A Protestant, de Bry created vivid images that helped to spread the Black Legend of Spain as a uniquely cruel colonizer. VI. The Spanish Empire Spain and the Indians Dual agenda of saving souls and exploiting labor External restraints on brutalization of Indians Pope Paul III’s ban on Indian enslavement Bartolomé de las Casas’s Destruction of the Indies Spanish reforms of colonist-Indian relations Abolition of Indian enslavement Abolition of encomienda system Implementation of repartimiento system Continuing abuse of Indians Colonial labor system at end of sixteenth century Involuntary wage labor by Indians Slave labor by Africans Emergence of Black Legend image of Spanish colonizers Spanish explorations of North America Motivations Riches Strategic bases Religious conversion VI. The Spanish Empire Spanish explorations of North America 2.Exploratory expeditions Juan Ponce de Léon Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo Hernando de Soto Cabeza de Vaca Francisco Vásquez de Coronado 3.Devastation of Indian communities 4.Establishment of Spanish settlements In present-day Southeast In present-day Southwest VI. The Spanish Empire Pueblo Revolt Pueblo Revolt Sources of Pueblo resentment of colonial authorities Labor exploitation Pressure to convert to Catholicism Assault on Pueblo religious traditions Failure to protect Pueblos from drought, external attacks The 1680 Revolt Popé Background Leadership Unity of Pueblo rebels Defeat and ouster of Spanish colonizers 3. Aftermath of revolt Eradication of Spanish cultural presence Collapse of Pueblo unity Return of Spanish colonial rule Easing of colonial practices toward Pueblos VII. The French and Dutch empires Overall significance As part of Atlantic rivalry with Spain Modesty of, compared to Spanish empire The French empire The Dutch empire Establishment and scope of Place within Dutch commercial empire Conceptions of liberty and toleration Social and economic arrangements Initial aims Initial obstacles Limits of growth Establishment and scope of Relations with Indians Relations with Indians Social and economic arrangements Limits of growth European’s Thinking about Indigenous Peoples Christopher Columbus: Rethinking Schools, pp.89-102 Lies My Teacher Told Me, pp.38-39. De Las Casas History of the Indies European’s View of Native Americans What do you see? (Write down only observations based on the document). European’s View of Native Americans Voices of Freedom Turn to pp.38-39 in Give Me Liberty! In groups examine either Bartolome de Las Casas’ History of the Indies or Josephe’s “Declaration of Joseph.” Answer the following questions: 1. Observation: What kind of document is it? What is the title? Who is the author? When was it written? For what audience was it written? 2. Expression: What do you find interesting or important about this document? Is there a particular phrase or section you find particularly meaningful or surprising? 3. Connection: What does this document tell us about life at the time it was written? What ideas of freedom are apparent in the document? Primary Source Strategy: APPARTS Exit ticket Homework Continue reading Give Me Liberty! Ch.1 pp.1-40 due Tuesday. Zinn reading questions. Prepare for debate tomorrow.